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COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES : Upon completion of this course, students should be able to: CLO 1. apply the principles of statics and dynamics to solve engineering problems (C3) CLO 2. sketch related diagram to be used in problem solving (C3) CLO 3. study the theory of engineering mechanics to solve related engineering problems in group (A3)

**JJ205 ENGINEERING MECHANICS
**

CHAPTER 2: FORCE VECTORS

CLO 1. apply the principles of statics and dynamics to solve engineering problems (C3)

Prepared by: THEEBENRAJ

2

Objectives:

• At the end of this chapter, student should be able to:

1. Understand scalars and vectors

a. b. a. a. b. c. Differentiate between scalars and vectors. Distinguish free vectors, sliding vectors, fixed vectors. Explain two forces acting on a particle. Calculate addition of vectors. Calculate subtraction of vectors. Determine resolution of vectors.

2. Understand rectangular components 3. Understand vectors and vector operations.

**4. Understand the resultant force of coplanar forces by addition.
**

a. b. c. Explain scalar notation. Explain cartesian vector notation. Determine coplanar forces and resultant force.

Objectives:

5. Understand Cartesian vectors.

a. b. c. a. Explain right handed coordinate system. Explain cartesian unit vector. Apply cartesian vector representation. Determine the direction of cartesian vector.

6. Understand the magnitude of cartesian vector.

**7. Understand resultant cartesian vector by addition and substraction.
**

a. Solve problems regarding concurrent force system.

**8. Understand position vectors and x, y, z coordinates.
**

a. Explain position vectors and x, y, z coordinate.

Determine the force vector directed along the line. 10.Objectives: 9. Formulate cartesian vector formulation. a. Commutative law Multiplication by scalar Distributive law b. Apply laws of operation. Understand the dot product. Explain the force vector directed along the line. . a. b. ii. i. Understand the force vector directed along the line. iii.

– SI units to measure the magnitude of a force are the Newton (N).Force On A Particle. – Multiple: kilonewton (kN) = 1000N 6 . • The magnitude of the force is characterized by a certain number of units. Resultant of Two Forces • A force represents the action of one body on another and generally characterized by its point of application. and its direction. its magnitude.

• The direction of a force is defined by the line of action and the sense of the force. 7 . b) A 30˚ The different sense of the force but have same magnitude and same direction. a) A 30˚ Magnitude of a force on particle A is 100N at 30˚.

P and Q acting on a particle A: P A Q • Can be replaced by a single force R which has the same effect on the particle. • The method is known as the parallelogram law for the addition of two forces. 8 .• Two forces. R P = A R A Q • R is the resultant of the forces P and Q.

Solution: a) Using graphical solution: i. 9 . ii. Forces P and Q are drawn in tip-to-tail fashion. The triangle rule may also be used. Determine their resultant.Example 2.1: The two forces P and Q act on bolt A. The magnitude and direction of the resultant are measured and found to be iii. A parallelogram with sides equal to P and Q is drawn to scale.

We apply the law of cosines: iii. ii. (1) iv.Continue… b) Trigonometric Solution. Now. v. two sides and the included angle are known. we have. i. Using a calculator. we write. then its are sines. 10 . The triangle rule is again used. applying the law of sines. we first compute the quotient. and obtain. Solving equation (1) for sin A.

Then. we obtain. iii. Again. using triangle ACD. i. We construct the right triangle BCD and compute. 11 .Continue… c) Alternative Trigonometric Solution. ii.

The two unknowns are the magnitude of FR and the angle θ (theta). 12 . – Solutions: a) Parallelogram Law: i. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force. The parallelogram law of addition is shown in Figure (b).Example 2. F1 and F2.2 • The screw eye in Figure (a) is subjected to two forces.

(c).FR is determined by using the law of cosines. is. 13 . measured from the horizontal. . is constructed from Fig. -Thus. the direction ø (phi) of FR.continue b) Trigonometry: -The vector triangle as shown in Fig. (b). -The angle θ is determined by applying the law of sines.

14 .Vectors • Vectors is defined as mathematical expressions possessing magnitude and direction. • It is represented by arrows. which add according to the parallelogram law. • The magnitude of a vector defines the length of the arrow used to represent the vector.

• Types of vectors: 1) Fixed vectors: cannot be moved without modifying the conditions of the problem. or slid. which represented by vectors which may be freely moved in space. 3) Sliding vectors: forces acting on a rigid body. 2) Free vectors: couples. 15 . along their lines of action. which represented by vectors which can be moved.

They are denoted by same letter. P P 5) Negative vectors: vector having the same magnitude but opposite direction. whether or not they also have the same point of application.continue 4) Equal vectors: two vectors have the same magnitude and the same direction. P -P 16 .

write as: P+Q=Q+P 17 P A Q . • The sum of two vectors P and Q is obtained by attaching the two vectors to the same point A and constructing a parallelogram. we conclude that the addition of two Vectors is commutative. •However. using P and Q as two sides of the parallelogram. the magnitude of the vector P+Q is NOT In general. •Since that.Addition of Vectors • Vectors add according to the parallelogram law. •The diagonal that passes through A represents the sum of the vectors P and Q which denoted as P + Q. equal to the sum (P+Q) of the magnitudes of the vectors P and Q.

18 .continue • Triangle Rule is an alternative method for determining the sum of two vectors from the parallelogram law. Q P A OR A Q P • From the figures shown above. it confirms the fact that vectors addition is commutative. • From the only half of the parallelogram.

P – Q = P + (-Q) -Q P A 19 . we write.Subtraction of Vectors • Defined as the addition of the corresponding negative vector. • P-Q representing the difference between the vectors P and Q is obtained by adding to P the negative vector –Q.

Q. Q S P A • For addition of vectors. and S was obtained graphically. • The triangle rule was first applied to obtain the sum P+Q of the vectors P and Q. • It was applied again to obtain the sum of vectors P+Q and S.Coplanar Vectors • The sum of three vectors P. Q S P A 20 . Polygon Rule is applied by arranging the given vectors in tip-to-tail fashion and connecting the tail of the first vector with the tip of the last one.

We may thus write.continue • The result obtained would have been unchanged if the vectors Q and S had been replaced by their sum Q + S. to be commutative. we write: P + Q + S = (P + Q) + S = S + (P + Q) = S + (Q + P) = S + Q + P 21 . • Recalling that vector addition has been shown. in the case of two vectors. P + Q + S = (P + Q) + S = P + (Q + S) Q S P A which expresses the fact that vector addition is associative.

shows that the order in which several vectors are added together is immaterial. as well as others which may be obtained in the same way.continue • This expression. Q S P A S Q P 22 .

Resolution of A Force Into Components • Components of the original force F. • The process of substituting them for F is called resolving the force F into components. 23 c) . • There are two cases of particular interest: 1) One of the two components. Q. is a single force F acting on a particle may be replaced by two or more forces which. Second component. have the same effect on the particle. is obtained by applying the triangle rule and joining the tip of P to the tip of F Q P F A Magnitude and direction of Q are determined graphically or by trigonometry. a) b) P is known. together.

which can be determined graphically or computed trigonometrycally by applying the law if sines. a) The magnitude and sense of the components are obtained by applying the parallelogram law and drawing lines. 24 . parallel to the given lines of action. P and Q.continue 2) The line of action of each component is known. through the tip of F. Q F A P b) This process leads to two well-defined components.

• In figure below. y y Fy F θ OR Fy F θ x Fx Fx x O O • The parallelogram drawn to obtain the two components is a rectangle.Addition of a System of Coplanar Forces • It will be found desirable to resolve a force into two components which are perpendicular to each other. 25 . the force F has been resolved into component Fx along the x axis and a component Fy along the y axis. and Fx and Fy are called rectangular components.

will be introduced at this point. y j i x 26 . They are denoted by i and j. • Scalar components: – The scalars Fx and Fy of forces F. • Vector components: – The actual component forces Fx and Fy of F. directed respectively along the positive x and y axes.continue • Cartesian Unit vectors: – Two vectors of unit magnitude.

continue • Cartesian Vector Notation – Note that the rectangular components Fx and Fy of a force F may be obtained by multiplying respectively the unit vectors i and j by appropriate scalars. We write. F = F x i + Fy j y Fy = Fy j j F θ O i Fx = Fx i x 27 . Fx = Fx i Fy = Fy j and express F as the Cartesian vector.

measured counterclockwise from the positive x axis. – Negative Fx when Fx has the opposite sense. – The positive and negative Fy is same as Fx y Fy F θ O Fx x • Denoting by F the magnitude of the force F and by θ the angle between F and the x axis. • This may express the scalar components of F as follows: Fx = F cosθ Fy = F sinθ 28 . – Indicates positive and negative Fx : – Positive Fx when the vector component Fx has the same sense as the unit vector i.continue • Scalar Notation. (same sense as the positive x axis).

Determine the horizontal and vertical components of the force.Example 2. (a) The vector components of F are: Fx = -(655 N) i Fy = +(459 N) j May write in Cartesian vector form: F = -(655 N) i + (459 N) j .3 A force of 800 N is exerted on a bolt A as shown in Figure (a).

30 .Example 2.4 • Resolve the 1000 N (≈ 100 kg) force acting on the pipe Fig. • Solution: – In each case the parallelogram law is used to resolve F into its two components. and (b) x’ and y directions. and then the vector triangle is constructed to determine the numerical results by trigonometry. a. into components in the (a) x and y directions.

c. note that the length of the components is scaled along the x and y axes by first constructing lines from the tip of F parallel to the axes in accordance with the parallelogram law. b. • In particular. 31 .continue – Part (a) • The vector addition F = Fx + Fy is shown in Fig. Fig. • From the vector triangle.

– Note carefully how the parallelogram is constructed. yields: 32 . Fig. – Applying the law of sines and using the data listed on the vector triangle. e.continue • Part (b) – The vector addition F = Fx + Fy is shown in Fig. d.

The corresponding vector triangle is shown in Fig. Note carefully how the resultant force is resolved into two components FAB and FAC. 33 .b. the vector addition of the two components yielding the resultant is shown in Fig. so that the component FAC is directed from A toward C and has a magnitude of 400 N. iii. which have specified lines of action. Solution: i. Determine the angle θ. ii.5 The force F acting on the frame shown in Fig. by using the parallelogram law.2-12a has a magnitude of 500 N and is to be resolved into two components acting along members AB and AC.c. measured below the horizontal.Example 2.

continue iv. 34 . The angle ø can be determined by using the law of sines: Hence.

35 . as shown in Fig. • Show that in this case θ = 16. and still produce the required component FAC. d.1˚ and FAB = 161 N.continue • Using this value for θ. • Notice that F can also be directed at an angle θ above the horizontal. apply the law of cosines or the law of sines and show that FAB has a magnitude of 561 N.

if it is required that the resultant force have a magnitude of 1 kN and be directed vertically downward. 36 . F1 and F2.6 The ring shown in Figure a is subjected to two forces. and (b) the magnitudes of F1 and F2 if F2 is to be a minimum. determine (a) the magnitudes of F1 and F2 provided θ = 30˚.Example 2.

b.continue • Solution: Part (a): i. ii. the unknown magnitudes F1 and F2 are determined by using the law of sines: 37 . c. From the vector triangle constructed in Fig. A sketch of the vector addition according to the parallelogram law is shown in Fig.

F2 is minimum. e. d. iv. iii. such as OA or OB. ii. yields a larger value for F2. then by the vector triangle.20˚ = 70˚. If θ is not specified. F2 may be added to F1 in various ways to yield the resultant 1000 N force. v. F1 = 1000 sin 70˚ N = 940 N F2 = 1000 cos 70˚ N = 342 N 38 . Hence.continue Part (b): i. Any other direction. it is seen that. From the triangle shown in Fig. The minimum length or magnitude of F2 will occur when its line of action is perpendicular to F1. Fig. when θ = 90˚ .

F1 = F1x i + F1y j F2 = . The resultant force is then formed by adding the resultants of the x and y components using parallelogram law. each force is first represented as a Cartesian vector. – To determine the resultant of several coplanar forces 1.F2x i + F3x )i + (F1y + F2y .• Coplanar Force Resultants.F3y ) j = (FRx )i + (FRy )j 39 . Example: Given three concurrent forces below: y F2 F1 x F3 To solve this problem using Cartesian vector notation. i.F2x i + F2y j + F3x i . 3.e. FR = F1 + F2+ F3 = F1x i + F1y j .F3y j The vector resultant is therefore.F3y j = (F1x . 2. The respective components are added using scalar algebra since they are colinear. Resolved each force into its x and y components.F2x i + F2y j F3 = F3x i .

the x and y components of the resultant of any number of coplanar forces can be represented symbolically by the algebraic sum of the x and y components of all the forces. since x is positive to the right and y is positive upward. we have. F2x y F2y F1y F1x F3x F3y x The vector resultant is therefore.continue • To solve this problem using Scalar notation. 40 . from figure shown. FR = = (FRx )i + (FRy )j In the general case.

– Components having a directional sense along the negative coordinate axes are considered negative scalars. – For example. y FRy θ FR x FRx 41 . – Components having a directional sense along the positive coordinate axes are considered positive scalars.continue • When applying these equations. then the signs of the resultant components will specify the sense of these components. it is important to use the sign convention establish for the components. positive result indicates that the component has a directional sense which is in positive coordinate direction. • If this convention is followed.

which is: • Also. which specifies the orientation of the force is determined from trigonometry: 42 . the magnitude of FR can be found from the Pythagorean Theorem. and the resultant force can be determined from vector addition. the direction angle θ. y FRy θ FR FRx x • Then. they may be sketched along the x and y axes in their proper direction.continue • Once the resultant components are determined.

Force Magnitude. the resultant R of the four forces is.0 . N + 75. N F1 150 + 129. Determine the resultant of the forces on the bolt.0 + 75.7 Four forces act on bolt A as shown.9 F2 80 .6 Rx = +199.27.2 .Example 2.1 y Component.110.9 Ry= + 14. N x Component. 43 .3 Thus.25.4 F3 110 0 F4 100 + 96.

From the triangle shown. we have: 44 .continue The magnitude and direction of the resultant may now be determined.

Express each force as a Cartesian vector. 45 . (a).8 Determine the x and y components of F1 and F2 acting on the boom shown in Fig.Example 2.

we have.continue • Solution: • Scalar Notation: F1 is resolved into x and y components using parallelogram law as shown in Fig. (b). The magnitude of each component is determined by trigonometry. Then. 46 .

determine the magnitudes of the components. 47 . (c).continue • Solution: F2 is resolved into x and y components as shown in Fig. The slope of the line of action is indicated and could obtain the angle θ: Then.

Hence. was obtained by multiplying the force magnitude by the ratio of the horizontal leg of the slope triangle divided by the hypotenuse. F2y.continue • Solution: The magnitude of the horizontal component. F2x. The magnitude of the vertical component. was obtained by multiplying the force magnitude by the ratio of the vertical leg divided by the hypotenuse. using scalar notation. 48 .

express each force as a Cartesian vector. 49 . Thus.continue • Solution: • Cartesian Vector Notation: The magnitudes and directions of the components of each force is determined.

50 .9 The link in Figure (a) below is subjected to two forces F1 and F2. determine the magnitude and orientation of the resultant force.Example 2.

Figure (b). The “positive” sense of the x and y force components alongside each equation is indicated. 51 . These components are summed algebraically.) Each force is resolved into its x and y components.continue • Solution 1: • Scalar Notation: (*Can be solved using parallelogram law.

) Magnitude of the resultant force. the direction angle θ is. shown in Figure (c).continue • Solution 1: • Scalar Notation: (*Can be solved using parallelogram law. Figure (c). 52 . From the vector addition.

each force is expressed as a Cartesian vector. The magnitude and direction of FR are determined in the same 53 manner in solution 1. .continue • Solution 2: • Cartesian Vector Notation: From Figure (b). Thus.

Determine the magnitude and orientation of the resultant force.10 The end of the boom O in Figure (a) below is subjected to three concurrent and coplanar forces. 54 .Example 2.

continue • Solution : Each force is resolved into its x and y components. as noted by the small arrow. Summing the x components. 55 . Summing the y components yields. Figure (b). The “negative” sign indicates that FRx acts to the left.

From the vector addition. 56 . Figure (c). the direction angle θ is.continue • Solution : Magnitude of the resultant force. shown in Figure (c).

measured counterclockwise from the positive x axis.33. 57 . Determine the magnitude of force F so that the resultant FR of the three forces is as small as possible.31. Determine the magnitude of the resultant force and its direction.Exercises 2.34. Determine the x and y components of the 800 N force 2. 2.

– A rectangular or Cartesian coordinate system is said to be right-handed provided the thumb of the right hand points in the direction of the positive z axis when the right-hand fingers are curled about this axis and directed from the positive x toward the positive y axis.Cartesian Vectors • Right handed coordinate system. – A right handed coordinate system will be used for developing the theory of vector algebra that follows. 58 .

or three rectangular components along the x. y. A = A’ + Az and A = Ax + Ay Ay Ax x A’ Combining these equations. two. When A is directed within an octant of z Az A the x. z frame. depending on how the vector is oriented relative to the axes. then. and z coordinate axes. we may resolve the vector into components as.continue • Rectangular Components of a Vector – A vector A may have one. y. by two successive applications of the parallelogram law. A = Ax + Ay + Az 59 . A y represented by the vector sum of its three rectangular components.

continue • Unit vector – Specified as the direction of A since it has a magnitude of 1. then the unit vector having the same direction as A is represented by. 60 . – If A is a vector having a magnitude A ≠ 0.1.2 • Equation 2. – uA (a dimensionless vector) defines the direction and sence of A. 2. the unit vector will be dimensionless since the unit will cancel out.2 therefore indicates that vector A may be expressed in terms of both its magnitude and direction separately – Eg: A positive scalar defines the magnitude of A. 2.1 • From equation 2.

continue • Cartesian unit vectors. z k y i x j The sense (or arrowhead) of these vectors will be described analytically by a plus or minus sign. k. depending on whether they are pointing along the positive or negative x. Figure shows the positive Cartesian unit vectors. or z axes. z axes respectively. the set of Cartesian unit vectors i. 61 . y. y. j. is used to designate the directions of the x. – In 3D.

continue • Cartesian Vector Representation. z Az k A k↑ j→ Ay j i↙ Ax i x y • Magnitude of Cartesian Vector 62 .

z axes located at the tail of A. y. and γ (gamma). – Each of the angles will be between 0˚ and 180˚.continue • Direction of a Cartesian Vector – The orientation of A is defined by the coordinate direction angle α (alpha). β (beta). z A Az y Ax x Ay 63 . measured between the tail of A and the positive x.

continue Direction cosine of A z z z A y Ax x Ay A y A Az y x x 64 .

and uA has a magnitude of 1. • A expressed in Cartesian vector form as: 65 .continue Direction angles: Since the magnitude of a vector is equal to the positive square root of the sum of the squares of the magnitudes of its components.

11 • Determine the magnitude and the coordinate direction angles of the resultant force acting on the ring in Fig. a. 66 .Example 2.

67 . the resultant force. shown in Fig.continue • Solution: – Since each force is represented in Cartesian vector form. is: – The magnitude of FR is found from equation above. b.

68 . note that β > 90˚ since the j component of uFR is negative. ɣ are determined from the components of unit vector acting in the direction of FR. β. – These angles are shown in Figure b. in particular. – So that.continue – The coordinate direction angles α.

69 . z coordinates. by successive measurements along the x. O. z axes. – Right-handed coordinate system is used to reference the location of points in space. y. to require the positive z axis to be directed upward (the zenith direction) so that is measures the height of an object or the altitude of the point. – Points in space are located relative to the origin of coordinates. – The x and y axes then lie in the horizontal plane. y. – In many technical books.Position Vectors • x.

2.-6) •B (0.z C 4m 2m 4m 2m B y 1m 6m x A •From the figure above.4) 70 .2.0) •C (6. •A (4. coordinate at point A: xA = +4 m along the x-axis yA = +2 m along the y-axis zA = -6 m along the z-axis • thus.-1.

– The position vector. r.z).continue • Position vector. then. if r extends from the origin of coordinates. is defined as a fixed vector which locates a point in space relative to another point. to point P(x. r can be expressed in Cartesian vector form as: r = xi + yj + zk 71 z zk r O xi x A yj y . O.y. – For example.

zB) y x •By the head-to-tail vector addition.rA = (xB i +yB j + zB k) – (xA i + yA j + zA k) 72 .continue z r A (xA. zA) rA rB B (xB. yA. yB. we require: rA + r = rB •Solving for r and expressing rA and rB in cartesian vector form as: r = rB .

continue z r (xB – xA) A rB rA (yB – yA) B (zB – zA) y x •In other way in solving for r and expressing rA and rB in Cartesian vector: [+ i direction] [+ j direction] [+ k direction] 73 .

Determine its length and its direction measured from A toward B.12 An elastic rubber band is attached to points A and B as shown in Fig.Example 2. (a). 74 .

0. 2 m. 3 m). establish a position vector A to B. – The coordinates of the tail A (1 m.continue • Solution: – First. r=B–A = [-2 m – 1 m] i + [2 m – 0] j + [3 m – (-3 m)] k = { -3i + 2j + 6k} m 75 . Figure (b). -3 m) are substracted from the coordinates of the head B (-2 m. which yields.

we have. 76 . – Formulating a unit vector in the direction of r. – The magnitude of r represents the length of the rubber band. (a) that they represent the direction and distance one must go along each axis in order to move from A to B.continue • Solution: – The components of r can be determined directly by realizing from fig.

continue • Solution: – The components of this unit vector yield the coordinate direction angles: – These angles are measured from the positive axes of a localized coordinate system placed at the tail of r. (c). 77 . point A as shown in Fig.

z B Force F is directed along the cord AB. F = Fu = F (r/r) 78 . Hence. A x y F – We can formulate F as a Cartesian vector by realizing that it has the same direction and sense as the position vector r directed from point A to point B on the cord. – This common direction is specified by the unit vector u=r/r.Force vector directed along a line – The direction of a force is specified by two points through which its line of action passes.

Represent this force. 79 .13 The man shown in Figure (a) pulls on chord with a force of 350 N.Example 2. acting on the support A. as a Cartesian vector and determine its direction.

5 – 7. u. is determined from the position vector r.5 m) − Forming the position vector. 1. which extends from A to B. r=B–A = (3 – 0) i + (-2 – 0) j + (1.5) k = { 3i – 2j – 6k} m 80 . 7. 0.continue • Solution: – Force F is shown in Figure (b). -2 m. – The coordinates of the end points of the cord are: A (0.5 m) B (3 m. The direction of this vector. we have.

then. 81 . (represent the length of cord AB): – Forming the unit vector that defines the direction and sense of both r and F yields: – Since F has a magnitude of 350 N and a direction specified by u.continue – Magnitude of r.

continue

– Coordinate direction angles: Measured between r (or F) and the positive axes of a localized coordinate system with origin placed at A. From the components of the unit vector:

82

Dot Product

• Dot product defines a particular method for “multiplying” two vectors and is used to solve the 3 Dimensional problems. A

B

**• Dot product of vectors A and B is A . B
**

– Defined as the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the cosine of the angle θ between their tails. – Equation form: A . B = AB cos θ (Eqn. 2.3)

Where 0˚ ≤ θ ≤ 180˚

– Dot product is often referred to as the scalar product of vectors; since the result is a scalar, NOT a vector.

83

continue

• Laws of Operation

– Commutative Law

– Multiplication by a scalar

– Distributive Law

**It is easy to prove the first and second laws by using Eqn. 2.3
**

84

continue

**• Cartesian Vector Formulation
**

– Equation 2.1 may be used to find the dot product for each of the Cartesian unit vectors. – Example:

– In similar manner:

**• Should not be memorized, but understood.
**

85

the final result becomes: – Thus. multiply their corresponding x.y.continue – Consider now the dot product of two general vectors A and B which are expressed in Cartesian vector form. We have: – Carrying out the dot-product operations. NOT to include any unit vector in final result. to determine the dot product of two Cartesian vectors. – Since the result is a scalar.z components and sum their products algebraically. 86 .

Vector Mechanics for Engineers. E. (2004).C. 87 . Eisenberg. Seventh Edition in SI Units. Statics.References: • R. E. Jr. (2004). Johnston. • F. Engineering Mechanics Statics – Third Edition.R. Hibbeler.P.R. Beer.

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