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• Movement of employees from one level to another and from one job to another within the company
• Promotion • Transfer • Demotion
• Advancement of an employee to a better job
– in terms of greater responsibility, more prestige, greater skills and increased rate of pay and salary” Paul Pigors and Charles Myers Main conditions of promotion are – Reassignment of a higher level job to an employee than what he is presently performing – Delegation of greater responsibility and authority – Higher pay
– Utilise employees skill, knowledge resulting in organisational effectiveness and employee satisfaction – Develop competitive spirit and inculcate the zeal in the employees to acquire the KSA – Develop competent source of employees for higher level jobs – Promote employees self development – Reduce labour turnover
PROMOTION • Purpose – Promote a sense of contentment with the existing conditions and a sense of belongingness – Promote interest in training and development programs – Build loyalty and boost morale – Reward committed and loyal employees .
pay and status • Upgradation – job is upgraded in the organisational hierarchy leading to greater responsibility. authority and status but no increase in salary . authority and pay • Dry Promotion – employee is moved to the next higher level in organisational hierarchy with greater responsibility. authority.TYPES OF PROMOTION • Vertical Promotion – employee moves to the next higher level in the organisational hierarchy with greater responsibility.
BASES OF PROMOTION Merit Denotes an employees skill. knowledge. ability. skills acquired by an employee Merit cum Seniority Combination of both for satisfying the management and employees and trade unions . training and employment record Seniority Assumes a positive corelation between the length of service in the same job and the amount of knowledge. efficiency and aptitude measures from educational.
BASES OF PROMOTION Merit Advantages Disadvantages • Measurement of merit difficult • Trade unions distrust management‟s integrity in judging merit • Subjective techniques used • Based on past achievement. may not guarantee future success • Maximum utilisation of human resource • Motivation to competent employees • Reduces employee turnover • Encouragement to acquire new skills and knowledge .
BASES OF PROMOTION Seniority Advantages • Easy to measure • Full support from trade unions • Minimises scope for favoritism and discrimination • Certainty of promotion to every employee • Respect to senior employees • Minimises scope for grievances and conflicts regarding promotion Disadvantages • Assumption that employees learn more with the length of service not valid • Demotivates young and more competent • Kills zeal and interest to develop as all are promoted • Organisational effectiveness is decreased • Increase in employee turnover .
BASES OF PROMOTION Merit cum Seniority Only merit considered for promotion Increasing weight on merit From most able. promote the senior Only seniority is considered for promotion Increasing weight on Seniority . promote the senior Minimum length of service required before one can be considered for promotion on merit After excluding the truly incompetent.
encouragement. guidance and follow-up – Definite basis for promotion .PROMOTION POLICY • Sound Promotion Policy – Uniform – Consistent – applied uniformly to all employees – Fair and impartial – Systematic line of promotion channel – Equal opportunities – Clear-cut norms for judging the merit etc – Appropriate authority should make the final decision – Favoritism should be avoided – Must contain promotional counseling.
PROMOTION • Glass ceiling-It is an invisible barrier to promotion. based on sex or race .
ASSIGNMENT • What is promotion? What are its purposes? Compare merit as a basis of promotion with that of seniority? • What is promotion policy? What are its contents? .
demotion or no change in the job status • “A lateral shift causing movement of individuals from one position to another usually without involving any marked change in duties.TRANSFER • Lateral movement of an employee in the hierarchy of position with the same pay and status • Moving of an employee from one job to another. responsibilities . It may involve promotion. skills needed or compensation” Yoder and associates • May be company or individual initiated .
dealers and suppliers Maintenance of tenure system • • • • • • . engaged in complicated or risky work Correct inter-personal conflicts Adjust employees timings and workplace Penalising employees Minimise corruption and frauds due to permanent stay and contacts with customers. lay offs and retrenchments Give relief to employees who are over burdened.REASONS OF TRANSFER • • • • • Meet orgnisational requirement Satisfy employee needs Increase employee productivity Make employees more versatile Adjust the workforce from one plant to another.
PRINCIPLES OF TRANSFER • • • • Should be in writing and known to all employees Should clearly state types and circumstances of transfer Should mention basis or grounds of transfer Should indicate authority responsible for initiating and implementing transfer Should specify units or areas over which transfer would take place Should specify rate of pay to be given to transferee Transfers should not be made too frequently Should state whether training or retraining is required on the new job • • • • .
• Transfer is carried out at the same occupational level i. for similar type of work – Replacement transfer • Due to initiation or replacement of a long standing employee in the same job • Also to prevent lay – offs .TYPES OF TRANSFER • On The Basis Of Purpose – Production transfer • Transfers caused due to changes in production • Transfer from one department to another due to decrease/increase in labour requirements to prevent lay – offs.e.
e.TYPES OF TRANSFER • On The Basis Of Purpose – Shift transfer • Transfer from one shift to another on the same type of work • To balance the requirements of certain employees i. women or specific reasons due to personal reasons – Remedial transfer • To correct the wrong placements • Due to inter-personal conflicts – Versatility transfer • To increase the versatility of an employee • To provide broader and wide perspective of the job • Help the employee in job enrichment and job enlargement • To help employee prepare for future promotions .
routine jobs – Inter Plant transfer .Transfer from one plant to another .TYPES OF TRANSFER • On The Basis Of Unit – Sectional transfer • Within the department from one section to another • To train and prepare workers to handle operations of different sections in department – Departmental transfer • Transfer from one department to another • Nature of work is same in both departments.
SEPARATION • Cessation of service agreement • Types of separations – Lay-offs – Resignation – Dismissal or discharge – Retirement – Retrenchment – Turnover – Voluntary Retirement Scheme .
„Lay-off is the failure.LAY-OFFS • Temporary separation of employee from employer at the instance of later without any prejudice to former • According to Section 2 of Industrial Dispute Act. 1947. refusal or inability of an employer to give employment to a worker whose name is present on the rolls but who has not been retrenchment‟ • Lay – off may be for a definite period on the expiry of which employee will be recalled by the employer for duty .
LAY-OFFS • Reasons – Decline in sales – Shortage of raw material – Displacement caused by technology – Delay in production – Accumulation of goods in godown in large quantity – Breakdown of machine .
sufficient notice to be served to the employee – Efforts must be made to get the laid-off employee appointed in other enterprises – Reasons must be made clear to the employee being laid-off .LAY-OFFS • Factors Determining Lay-offs – Must be made clear at the time of appointment and that all efforts will be made to recall the employee back – In case of long term lay-off or lay-off for an indefinite term.
LAY-OFFS • Laws Relating to lay-offs .Provisions of the Act do not apply to establishments – In which less than 50 workmen on the average per working day have been employed in the preceding one month – Which is of seasonal character or in which work is performed intermittently .
LAY-OFFS • Right of Workmen Laid-off for Compensation – On completion of one year of service. no compensation is to be paid in respect of any period of lay-off after the expiry of first 45 days – It is lawful for the employer to retrench the worker any time after the expiry of 45 days – If a worker is retrenched. a workmen if laid off. then compensation paid to him for lay – off in the preceding 12 months may compensation payable for retrenchment be set off against the . is entitled to compensation equal to 50% of basic wages and DA payable to him had he not been laid –off – If during any period of 12 months a worker is laid-off for more than 45 days.
LAY-OFFS • Cases In Which Workmen Are Not Entitled For LayOff Compensation – If he refuses to accept any alternative employment in the same establishment from which he has been laid-off or in any other establishment belonging to same employer situated in the same town. village or within a radius of five miles from his workplace – If he does not present himself for work at the establishment at the appointed time during normal working hours at least once a day – If such lay-off is due to a strike or slowing down of production on the part of workmen in another part of the establishment .
Richard Hackman & Greg Oldham • Five core dimensions required for JCM – Skill Variety – Task identity – Task significance – Autonomy – Feedback .JOB CHARACTERISTIC MODEL • Given by J.
does body work and also interact with customers.Degree of which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable peace of work.g. builds object and finish it to perfection.JOB CHARACTERISTIC MODEL • Skill Variety . e. selects wood. .g. An operator in a garage does electric rebuilds engines.Degree to which job requires a variety of different activities. A cabinet maker designs a piece of furniture. e. • Task Identity .
A nurse handling diverse needs of patients in a hospital intensive care unit. .: A sales person who schedules his work according to his time and decide different sales approach with different customer without supervision.g. e. e. • Autonomy Degree to which a job provides substantial freedom and discretion to individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedure to be used in carrying it out.g.JOB CHARACTERISTIC MODEL • Task Significance Degree to which job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people.
e.: A factory worker who assembles iPod and test them to see if they operate properly.g.JOB CHARACTERISTIC MODEL • Feedback Degree to which work activities required by a job results in the individual obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his/her performance. .
Low absenteeism and turnover . High Satisfaction with the work . High Quality performance. Employee growth need strength Personal & Work Outcomes Feedback High internal work motivation.Core Job Dimension Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Critical Psychological States Experience meaningfulness of work Experience responsibility for outcome of the work Knowledge of the actual results of work activities.
.JOB ROTATION • Periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another • When activity is no longer challenging worker is rotated to another job • Carried out usually at the same level and have similar skill requirement.
making beds and vacuuming but also replacing bulbs. . • e.g housingkeeping job in small hotel not only includes cleaning of the bathrooms. services and restocking bars.JOB ENLARGEMENT • Increasing the number and variety of task that an individual performs. • Difference between job rotation and job enlargement is enlarging the scope of the job .
and evaluation of the work. .JOB ENRICHMENT • The vertical expansion of jobs which increases the degree to which the worker controls the planning. execution.
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