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KRITI YADAV 2008UAR113
Kangra Earthquake of
1905 Bihar-Nepal Earthquake of 1934 Assam Earthquake of 1897 / 1950 Bhuj Earthquake of 2001
The Dhajji Dewari Buildings of Kashmir The Pherols of Uttarkashi- These 100-year-old and traditionally built
multistoreyed houses are constructed of stone and wood with mud mortar (coursed-rubble masonry type). The Kat-ki-Kunni Buildings of Kullu Valley- Bearing a close resemblance to Pherols and the Dhajji-Diwari buildings, these timbercornered buildings combine the weight, solidity and strength of a stone building with the flexibility and quake-resistant qualities of a wooden one. Traditional Assamese Buildings- In these structures, the building construction method is simple — pillars are made of gravel, red soil and local plastering material, topped with a structure of locally available timber. The Bhongas of Kutch.
By homeowners or builders Without formal training Using local materials and traditional designs Also known as “non engineered” constructions.
Reflects social, cultural and economic constraints Renders prevailing construction material & techniques Responds to existing climate Based on functional needs of owners
Locally Available Materials
Αdobe (mud blocks or whole walls) Μasonry (stone, clay, or concrete blocks) Τimber Building Layout Circular plan Rectangular plan Linear plan (row houses) Building Size Single story Μultistory buildings
KYRGYZSTAN, CHINA above; MALAWI, SOUTH AFRICA down
Different cultures, living in similar circumstances, independently arrived at similar building techniques.
Construction with ductile materials Ductile reinforcement in walls (wood or steel) to avoid out-of plane collapse Proper maintenance to prevent decay of wooden materials Selected materials (brick-mortar-wood) Construction with robust architectural forms Regular floor plan (shape-distribution of walls) Uniform openings (small and well-spaced) Construction with springy structural configuration Efficient connections (wall-wall, floor-wall, wall-foundation, etc.) Precisely built wall textures to provide bracing and shear resistance Continuous foundation to avoid settlement and cracking from below Construction that reduces seismic forces Lightweight roof Low-rise houses (one- or two-stories high)
When it comes to structural safety, IAEE (International Association for Earthquake Engineering) experts offer a few pointers: Walls need horizontal reinforcement so that they can transfer their own out-of-plane inertia load horizontally to shear walls. Walls should be tied together so as to avoid separation at vertical joints during a quake. Shear walls, capable of resisting all horizontal forces due to their own mass and those transmitted to it, are needed along both axes of the building. A free-standing wall must be designed to be safe as a vertical cantilever. All partitions inside buildings must be held on the sides as well as the top. Roof or floor elements need to be tied together and should be able to exhibit diaphragm action. Trusses must be anchored to supporting walls and should be able to transfer their inertia force to end walls.
The typical traditional dwellings of the Kutch region,
the „bhongas‟, have withstood the test of time for centuries. The Village of Ludiya was evaluated and the plans for action were rapidly established. 1) Repair houses with minor damages 2) Remodel the partly damaged houses incorporating earthquake resistant design 3) Building new houses with appropriate technology
As these images illustrate traditional house form as bhunga with circular
adobe wall and conical thatch roof which stood the massive earthquake while the newly built rectilinear structures in stone and mortar were razed to ground. This proved that traditional wisdom employed in the vernacular built form is not only environmentally sustainable but also efficient in engineering terms.
Traditional houses, or bhongas, in the
Kutch region consist of a single room circular in plan, the diameter varying from 3 m to 6 m. The walls are made of sun-dried (adobe) bricks and are about 500 mm thick. The roof is pitched and made of bamboo sticks and thatch. A central post (100-150 mm diameter) is propped by a wooden log (200-250 mm diameter) running diametrically across the room and resting on the walls, supports the roof. There are no openings built under the point where the wooden log(horizontal post of the roof system) is supported on the wall. The brittle mud walls gave way under these large local stresses, resulting in the collapse of the entire structure.
The adobe wall is started about 1.0
m below ground, the plinth is raised about 300 mm above ground, and the wall 2.1 m above that. The major departure from the traditional construction in new construction is that the traditional thatch roof is replaced with a heavy Mangalore tile roof. In recent times, some bhongas were also made in burnt clay bricks and cement mortar. Plinth and collar bands are also included in some instances. However, low lateral strength and the heavy log of wood supporting the roof are negative factors. Most of the older ones and those made in mud mortar suffered varying levels of damage; bhongas made with bricks and cement mortar performed better.
The reasons are plenty: Circular form withstands stress from all directions Low scale of wall offers low slenderness ratio Tapering wall increases stability Plinth bulge as well as built-in storage and platforms strengthen wall base Homogeneity of material from base to lintel avoids segregation and sliding between different elements Small apertures reduce cracking tendencies at lintel junctions Wooden-frame bracing of opening jambs and conical roof with spiral braiding and rope reinforcement increase stability
Mud block fabrication: Due to the number of
bhongas to be built at one time, large quantities of materials were needed at once. In order to accommodate this, a materials bank was set up with the wood, grass, earth and cow dung necessary for the construction of the bhongas.. setting out the units on their plots, and began the foundation excavations.
Setting out: Each family was responsible for
Wall Construction: The walls of the bhonga
were constructed, using the blocks from the materials bank and mud mortar. The other components, such as windows, and doors are made on site. As the construction method was familiar to the inhabitants, everyone could participate.
Wall plastering and finishing: The walls wee finished
using a composite plaster of cow dung and mud. Layers were applied by hand. The last 2 layers were uniquely (Banni mud) chosen for its particular characteristic which create a better furnish.
Thatch roof assembly: The roof was constructed,
with a wooden frame and grass roofing. A raised platform was constructed around all the buildings which make up the dwelling compound. It was built of rubble stone, mud or block and finished in plaster.
and Ornamentation: The inhabitants then decorated their bhongas. Relief work as well as colour patterns were ornament the interior and exterior of the bhongas.
In big panels, the energy is concentrated
In a usual house, an earthquake first makes:
One Big crack, then Two, finally the walls fall out.
Small panels distribute the energy evenly
In a Dhajji house, there are:
many SMALL cracks and only small parts fall out but the walls remain.
When a frame is deformed,
the stones of the infill have to move away.
When the stones and the
boards have to move, they rasp against each other. This friction dissipates energy.
The small panels distribute the earthquake energy evenly. The friction between all the small elements and their in-fills breaks
down the energy. There may be a lot of small cracks which are not dangerous. But large destructive cracks become very rare.
Only a solid frame can contain the energy • Good joints • Good protection from water
Prepare a good foundation with
stone and cement mortar. Place anchor bolts into concrete, into the lower part of the foundation. Anchors can be prepared with a plate or a hook.
between anchor bolts about 6 feet. Diameter anchor bolt ½ inch. Top of the foundation should be in stone. Avoid a concrete finish, as the water will remain under the dasa. This foundation is not enough solid.
the Dasa to the foundation Diameter anchor bolt ½ inch. Protecting the Dasa against water and insects. Minimum size of dasa: 4x4 inch. Fix the Dasa with the anchors (Don‟t forget to add a solid washer) Don‟t place the posts directly on the foundation, without a Dasa. Apply oil before placing, including the lower side.
Main posts should be 4 to 6 feet
apart. With this spacing, the main posts must be 4”x 4” With no main posts (except the corners), the vertical boards can be 2”x 4”. But they must be maximum 2 ft apart.
Scarf joint: Length: 3 times size of beam (with 4”x4” beam). Use a hardwood peg, cut into 2 wedges. Lap joint: Length: 3 times size of beam. Connect with 4” nails, 3 from each sides. First nail 4” from end of wood joint.
Truss with rafters placed ONTO the tie-beam The rafters are „stuck‟ onto the tie beam. This way, the tie-beam can work at its full capacity. Leave at least as much wood after the joint as the beam is high. Secure the rafters with straps or 5” nails put in the same position as the straps. Truss with double tie-beams AGAINST the rafters Here the tie beam is cut in two halves of 2”x4” each. They hold the rafters from the side. The 2”x4” tie-beams are nailed against the rafter from both sides. Use four 4” nails on each side. To make good roof trusses, connect the rafters with lateral tie beams.
Fill in the spaces with stone and mud mortar Plaster the walls with mud containing straw. Don‟t use cement, as it will break off quickly. A well placed window between main posts
Use diagonal bracing in gable roof framing
Use knee bracing in roof
Use diagonal bracing adjacent to wall posts
Use diagonal bracing at wall corners
Use adequate lashing at wall to roof connections
& rafter to purlin connection
Use tapered walls
Insert reinforcing L-angle at regular intervals
of height of wall at corners & T junctions Made of bamboo, steel & wood.
Maintain minimum distances from corners for
door and window openings
Penetrate floor joists through walls
Use timber posts embedded in walls to
Use stepped foundation
The unfired brick infill walls into pilasters
Reinforce wall to wall connections
Provide wall to roof connections
Anchor sill plates to foundations with anchor
Extend wood framing into gable with X- braces
lightweight roofing framing at veranda
Use RC ring beam or wood ring beam
Use bond stones in walls
Use diagonal bracing in horizontal plan of
VERNACULAR HOUSING CONSTRUCTION
(Mauro Sassu, University of Pisa, Italy)
THE SCIENCE OF SEISMIC DESIGN
GANDHI NU GAM – LUDIYA(pdf)
Dhajji construction (UN Habitat)
2005 NPEEE Earthquake Design Concept