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Half-life (t)
Time required for half the atoms of a radioactive nuclide to decay. Shorter half-life = less stable.
Ratio of Remaining Potassium-40 Atoms to Original Potassium-40 Atoms 1/1 Potassium Argon Calcium Newly formed rock


1/4 1/8 1/16 0 0 1 half-life 1.3 2 half-lives 3 half-lives 2.6 3.9 Time (billions of years)

4 half-lives 5.2


mf m ( )

1 n i 2

mf: final mass mi: initial mass n: # of half-lives

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Fluorine-21 has a half-life of 5.0 seconds. If you start with 25 g of fluorine-21, how many grams would remain after 60.0 s?

t = 5.0 s mi = 25 g mf = ? total time = 60.0 s n = 60.0s 5.0s =12

WORK: mf = mi ()n mf = (25 g)(0.5)12 mf = 0.0061 g

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Nuclear Chemistry

III. Fission & Fusion

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(p. 717 - 719)

F ission
splitting a nucleus into two or more smaller nuclei 1 g of 235U = 3 tons of coal

235 92

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F ission
chain reaction - self-propagating reaction critical mass - mass required to sustain a chain reaction

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combining of two nuclei to form one nucleus of larger mass thermonuclear reaction requires temp of 40,000,000 K to sustain 1 g of fusion fuel = 20 tons of coal occurs naturally in stars
2 1

3 1

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Fission vs. Fusion

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F I S S I O N is limited danger of meltdown toxic waste thermal pollution


F U S I O N fuel is abundant no danger of meltdown no toxic waste not yet sustainable


Nuclear Chemistry
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IV. Applications
(p. 713 - 716)

Nuclear Power
Fission Reactors
Cooling Tower

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Nuclear Power
Fission Reactors

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Nuclear Power
Fusion Reactors (not yet sustainable)
(International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)


(produces the magnetic field which confines the plasma)

(provides neutron shielding and converts fusion energy into hot, high pressure fluid)


(where the fusion reactions occur)

Height Diameter Fusion power

100 feet 100 feet 1100 Megawatts

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Nuclear Power

Fusion Reactors (not yet sustainable)

National Spherical Torus Experiment

Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Princeton University

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Synthetic Elements
Transuranium Elements
elements with atomic #s above 92 synthetically produced in nuclear reactors and accelerators most decay very rapidly

238 92

U He
4 2

242 94


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Natural and artificial radioactivity

Natural radioactivity
Isotopes that have been here since the earth formed. Example - Uranium Produced by cosmic rays from the sun. Example carbon-14

Man-made Radioisotopes
Made in nuclear reactors when we split atoms (fission).

Produced using cyclotrons, linear accelerators,

Positive particle Alternating source voltage

Particle beam

Vacuum Target

Copyright 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved.

Radioactive Dating
half-life measurements of radioactive elements are used to determine the age of an object decay rate indicates amount of radioactive material EX: 14C - up to 40,000 years 238U and 40K - over 300,000 years

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Nuclear Medicine
Radioisotope Tracers
absorbed by specific organs and used to diagnose diseases

Radiation Treatment
larger doses are used to kill cancerous cells in targeted organs internal or external radiation source
Radiation treatment using -rays from cobalt-60.
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Nuclear Weapons
Atomic Bomb chemical explosion is used to form a critical mass of 235U or 239Pu fission develops into an uncontrolled chain reaction Hydrogen Bomb chemical explosion fission fusion fusion increases the fission rate more powerful than the atomic bomb
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Food Irradiation
radiation is used to kill bacteria

Radioactive Tracers
explore chemical pathways trace water flow study plant growth, photosynthesis

Consumer Products
ionizing smoke detectors - 241Am
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Simplified diagram of fission bomb Chemical Explosive

Subcritical Critical masses mass

Nuclear Fusion

41 H 1
Four hydrogen nuclei (protons)

2-01 e
Two beta particles (electrons)

4 2

He +


One helium nucleus

Conservation of Mass
mass is converted into energy

Hydrogen (H2) Helium (He)


H = 1.008 amu He = 4.004 amu

1 He


1.008 amu x 4 4.0032 amu = 4.004 amu + 0.028 amu

This relationship was discovered by Albert Einstein E = mc2 Energy= (mass) (speed of light)2

Nuclear Fusion
1 1

H 1H 2 H 0 e Neutrino 1 1 1

2 1

H H He
1 1 3 2

Gamma ray

3 2

He 3 He 4 He 2 2

21 H 1

Cold Fusion
Fraud? Experiments must be repeatable to be valid
Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischman

Tokamak Reactor
Fusion reactor 10,000,000 o Celsius Russian for torroidial (doughnut shaped) ring Magnetic field contains plasma

central solenoid magnet

Poloidall field magnet

Torroidal field magnet

Fission vs. Fusion

Split large atoms U-235

Change Nucleus of Atoms

Fuse small atoms 2H2 He

Radioactive waste (long half-life)

Create Large Amounts of Energy E = mc2



NO Radioactive waste

Nuclear Power Plants

Transmutation of Elements Occurs

Very High Temperatures ~5,000,000 oC (SUN)

Atomic Structure
6 protons protons Differ by number of protons 8

carbon vs. oxygen


6 e6 p+

4+ 42 e6 p+

10 eDiffer by number of electrons 6 p

C-12 vs. C-14 ISOTOPES

Differ by number of neutrons

6 e6 p+ 6 n0

6 e6 p+ 8 n0

Mass Defect
Difference between the mass of an atom and the mass of its individual particles.

4.00260 amu

4.03298 amu

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Nuclear Binding Energy

Energy released when a nucleus is formed from nucleons. High binding energy = stable nucleus. E: energy (J) m: mass defect (kg) c: speed of light (3.00108 m/s)


2 mc

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Nuclear Binding Energy

Binding energy per nucleon (kJ/mol)
10x108 9x108 8x108 7x108 6x108 5x108 4x108 3x108 2x108 1x108 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
B-10 Li-6 Fe-56 He-4 U-238






Mass number Unstable nuclides are radioactive and undergo radioactive decay.

Mass Defect and Nuclear Stability

2 protons: 2 neutrons: (2 x 1.007276 amu) = 2.014552 amu (2 x 1.008665 amu) = 2.017330 amu

2 electrons: (2 x 0.0005486 amu) = 0.001097 amu

Total combined mass:

4.032979 amu = 4.002602 amu

The atomic mass of He atom is 4.002602 amu. This is 0.030368 amu less than the combined mass. This difference between the mass of an atom and the sum of the masses of its protons, neurons, and electrons is called the mass defect.

Nuclear Binding Energy

What causes the loss in mass? According to Einsteins equation E = mc2 Convert mass defect to energy units 0.030368 amu

1.6605 x 10-27 kg 1 amu

= 5.0426 x 10-29 kg

The energy equivalent can now be calculated

E = m c2
E = (5.0426 x 10-29 kg) (3.00 x 108 m/s)2 E = (4.54 x 10-12 kg m2/s2) = 4.54 x 10-12 J This is the NUCLEAR BINDING ENERGY, the energy released when a nucleus is formed from nucleons.

Binding Energy per Nucleon

1) Calculate mass defect
protons: 1.007276 amu neutrons: 1.008665 amu electrons: 0.0005486 amu mass number
(# of protons + neutrons)

7 3


atomic number
(# of protons)

Li - 7
= _______ kg

2) Convert amu
________ amu

1.6605 x 10-27 kg 1 amu

3) E = mc2
speed of light (c) 3.00 x108 m/s

4) Divide binding energy by number of nucleons

The Energy of Fusion

The fusion reaction releases an enormous amount of energy relative to the mass of the nuclei that are joined in the reaction. Such an enormous amount of energy is released because some of the mass of the original nuclei is converted to energy. The amount of energy that is released by this conversion can be calculated using Einstein's relativity equation E = mc2. Suppose that, at some point in the future, controlled nuclear fusion becomes possible. You are a scientist experimenting with fusion and you want to determine the energy yield in joules produced by the fusion of one mole of deuterium (H-2) with one mole of tritium (H-3), as shown in the following equation:

2 3 4 1 1H 1H 2He 0 n

2 3 4 1 1H 1H 2He 0 n
2.01345 amu 3.01550 amu 4.00150 amu 1.00867 amu

5.02895 amu

5.01017 amu

First, you must calculate the mass that is "lost" in the fusion reaction. The atomic masses of the reactants and products are as follows: deuterium (2.01345 amu), tritium (3.01550 amu), helium-4 (4.00150 amu), and a neutron (1.00867 amu).

Mass defect:

0.01878 amu

2 3 4 1 1H 1H 2He 0 n
Mass defect = 0.01878 amu According to Einsteins equation E = mc2 Convert mass defect to energy units 0.01878 amu

1.6605 x 10-27 kg 1 amu

= 3.1184 x 10-29 kg

The energy equivalent can now be calculated

E = m c2
E = (3.1184 x 10-29 kg) (3.00 x 108 m/s)2 E = (2.81 x 10-12 kg m2/s2) = 2.81 x 10-12 J This is the NUCLEAR BINDING ENERGY, for the formation of a single Helium atom from a deuterium and tritium atom.

Therefore, one mole of helium formed by the fusion of one mole of deuterium and one mole of hydrogen would be 6.02 x 1023 times greater energy. 2.81 x 10-12 J 6.02 x 1023 1.69 x 1012 J of energy released per mole of helium formed 1,690,000,000,000 J

The combustion of one mole of propane (C3H8), which has a mass of 44 g, releases 2.043 x 106 J. How does this compare to the energy released by the fusion of deuterium and tritium, which you calculated?
C3H8 + O2 44 g 4 g He 1,690,000,000,000 J 44 g C3H8 2,043,000 J H2O + CO2 + 2.043 x 106 J (unbalanced)

Fusion produces ~1,000,000 x more energy/mole

Lise Meitner and Otto Hahn

Atoms for Peace

Show nuclear science is not evil Has good uses, too.
Bombing of Japan in WW II

Food irradiation Cancer treatment PET & CAT scan Destroy ANTHRAX bacteria


Photographic film enclosed in lightproof holder

Copyright 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved.

Exposed and developed photographic film


Chest X-ray showing scoliosis corrected with steel rod

Radioactive isotopes Many uses
Medical diagnostics Optimal composition of fertilizers Abrasion studies in engines and tires

Radioisotope is injected into the bloodstream to observe circulation.

Isotopes of Three Common Elements

Mass Element Symbol
12 6 13 6

Mass (amu)

Number 12 13 35 37 28 29 30 12 (exactly) 13.003 34.969 36.966 27.977 28.976 29.974

Fractional Abundance 99.89% 1.11% 75.53% 24.47% 92.21% 4.70% 3.09%

Average Atomic Mass 12.01



35 17

Cl Cl



37 17


28 14 29 14

Si Si 30 Si 14


LeMay Jr, Beall, Robblee, Brower, Chemistry Connections to Our Changing World , 1996, page 110

Radioactivity and Nuclear Energy

Practice Quiz

1. Which of the following is not an example of spontaneous radioactive process? a. alpha-decay b. beta-decay c. positron production d. autoionization e. electron capture
2. If a nucleus captures an electron, describe how the atomic number will change. a. It will increase by one b. It will decrease by one c. It will not change because the electron has such a small mass d. It will increase by two e. It will decrease by two mass number
14 7N

0 -1

14 6

C atomic number

Radioactivity and Nuclear Energy

3. Polonium is a naturally radioactive element decaying with the loss of an alpha 210 4 particle. 84 Po + ? . What is the second product of this decay? 2 He
a. b. c. d. e. Rn-214 Pb-206 At-206 Hg-208 none of these
210 84


4 2a

214 86 Rn

alpha absorption

210 84


4 2

a +

206 82 Pb

alpha emission

4. Thorium-234 undergoes beta particle production. What is the other product? 234 a. 91 Pa
b. 234 Ac 89 c. 233 Th 90 d. 233 Th 91 e. none of these
234 90


0 -1

b +

234 91 Pa

Radioactivity and Nuclear Energy

5. The element curium (Z = 242, A = 96) can be produced by positive-ion bombardment when an alpha particle collides with which of the following nuclei? Recall that a neutron is also a product of this bombardment. 249 a. 98 Cf
b. 241 Pu 94 c. 241 Am 95
239 94

Pu +

4 2


242 96


1 0

d. 239 U 92
e. 239 Pu 94 6. When 7 N is bombarded by (and absorbs) a proton, a new nuclide is produced plus an alpha particle. The nuclide produced is ______?
14 7N 14

1 1

C-11 + 6 C


4 2

Radioactivity and Nuclear Energy

7. When the uranium-235 nucleus is struck with a neutron, the cesium-144 and strontium-90 nuclei are produced with some neutrons and electrons. a) How many neutrons are produced? b) How many electrons are produced?
a. b. c. d. e. 2 3 4 5 6
235 92 U

a. b. c. d. e. +
1 0

1 2 3 4 5 + 2
1 0

144 55 Cs

90 38 Sr

0 -1

8. When the palladium-106 nucleus is struck with an alpha particle, a proton is produced along with a new element. What is the new element? a. b. c. d. e. cadmium-112 cadmium-109 silver-108 silver-109 none of these

106 46


4 2a

1 1

109 47


Radioactivity and Nuclear Energy

9. Strontium-90 from radioactive fallout is a health threat because, like _________, it is incorporated into bone.
a. b. c. d. e. iodine cesium iron calcium uranium
Strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) are alkaline earth metals. Strontium is chemically more reactive than calcium.

10. Nuclear fusion uses heavy nuclides such as

235 92 U

as fuel. True / False

FALSE, Nuclear fission splits heavy nuclides such as U-235 for fuel in nuclear reactors. Nuclear fusion joins light nuclides such as H-1 into He-4 (on the Sun).

Textbook Problems
Modern Chemistry
Chapter 22 Pg 704 #1-4 Section Review Pg 712 #1-5 Section Review Pg 715 #1-4 Pg 719 #1-4 End of Chapter #25-47 (pg 723-724) 25. The mass of a Ne-20 atom is 19.99244 amu. Calculate its mass defect. 26. The mass of Li-7 is 7.01600 amu. Calculate its mass defect.

27. Calculate the nuclear binding energy of one lithium-6 atom. The measured atomic mass of lithium-6 is 6.015 amu.