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A geographic information

system is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. system (GIS) technology provides the tools for creating, managing, analyzing, and visualizing the data associated with developing and managing infrastructure.

Geographic information

In a general sense, the term

describes any information system that integrates, stores, edits, analyzes, shares, and displays geographic information for informing decision making.

1832 "Rapport sur la marche et les

effets du cholra dans Paris et le dpartement de la Seine". The French geographer Charles Picquet represented the 48 districts of the city of Paris by halftone color gradient according to the percentage of deaths by cholera per 1,000 inhabitants.
1854 John Snow depicted

a cholera outbreak in London using points to represent the locations of some individual cases. His study of the distribution of cholera led to the source of the disease, a contaminated water pump.

1960 saw the development of the

world's first true operational GIS in Ottawa, Ontario. Developed by Dr. Roger Tomlinson, it was called the Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS) and was used to store, analyze, and manipulate data collected for the Canada Land Inventory an effort to determine the land capability for rural Canada by mapping information about soils, agriculture, recreation, wildlife, waterfowl, forestry and land use at a scale of 1:50,000. Computer hardware development spurred by nuclear weapon research led to general-purpose computer "mapping" applications by the early 1960s

To take raw data and transform it by overlap and by various analytical calculations into new information which can help us make decisions.

To reduce the time and-money-consuming activities of handling, recording, researching, etc.

PHOTOGRAMMETRIC COMPLATION The primary source used in the process of photogrammetric compilation is aerial photography. Generally, the process involves using specialized equipment (a stereoplotter) to project overlapping aerial photos so that a viewer can see a three-dimensional picture of the terrain, known as a photogrammetric model.

SATELLITE DATA Earth Resources Satellites have become a source of huge amount of data for GIS applications. The data obtained from the Satellites are in digital form, which can be directly imported to GIS. A new generation of highresolution satellite data that will increase opportunities and options for GIS database development is becoming available from private sources and national governments.

LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging, also LADAR) is an optical remote sensing technology that can measure the distance to, or other properties of a target by illuminating the target with light, often using pulses from a laser

FIELD DATA COLLECTION - Advances in hardware and software have greatly increased opportunities for capture of GIS data . In particular, electronic survey systems and the global positional system (GPS) have revolutionized surveying and field data collection. Electronic distance measurement services allow for survey data to be gathered quickly in automated form for uploading to a GIS.

A GIS can be viewed in three ways: 1) The Database View: A GIS is a unique kind of database of the worlda geographic database (geo database). It is an "Information System for Geography. Fundamentally, a GIS is based on a structured database that describes the world in geographic terms.

2) The Map View: A GIS is a set of intelligent maps and other views that show features and feature relationships on the earth's surface. Maps of the underlying geographic information can be constructed and used.

3) The Model View: A GIS is a set of information transformation tools that derive new geographic datasets from existing datasets. These geo processing functions take information from existing datasets, apply analytic functions, and write results into new derived datasets.

For Geometric Networks - are

linear networks of objects that can be used to represent interconnected features, and to perform special spatial analysis on them. USES - Geometric networks are often used to model road networks and public utility networks, such as electric and water networks. Network modeling is also commonly employed in transportation planning, and hydrology modeling,

For Hydrological modeling - the analysis of variables such as slope, aspect and watershed or catchment area. Slope and aspect can then be used to determine direction of surface runoff, and hence flow accumulation for the formation of streams, rivers and lakes USES - One of the main uses of hydrological modeling is in environmental contamination research and for agricultural purposes.

For Weather Map System GIS technology is becoming an essential tool to understand the impacts of this change over time.GIS enables the combination of various sources of data with existing maps and up-todate information from earth observation satellites along with the outputs of climate change models. USES: This can help in understanding the effects of climate change on complex natural systems.

GIS functionalities have been used to

assist in the analysis, selection, prioritization, and implementation of civil engineering projects. In this regard, many GIS applications have been developed in hydrology, hydraulics, water resources, transportation, geotechnical, surveying, environmental and other fields of civil engineering, to facilitate engineering analysis, modeling, design, implementation, management, Decision making. GIS is a computerized data base management system that provides geographic access (capture, storage retrieval, analysis and display) to spatial data.

GIS using in all Phases of Civil Engineering projects such as:

Planning Data collection Environmental

Analysis Design Construction Data collection/ Surveying Operation/ Maintenance

1. Surface Modeling (Surveying). Enhancements that make. It possible to utilize very large surface models.

2. Hydrology & Hydraulics (Design & Analysis) Hydraulic Calculators. So that quickly design and analyze your water system.

3) Transportation - Route Selection, Mass Haul Diagrams,

Wizard Based. Dump Sites & Borrow Pits. It will be real time assessment of design viability and minimizing project costs.

Road Design Alignment / Profile Layout - Quickly utilize existing

elements such as survey figures to create alignments that can be used during design processes. Features Lines to the road. It easy of use and Flexibility tosolve more complex design tasks with retaining Relationships while design changes. Easily convert coordinate or rawdata files into functional formats

4) Management construction - Layers transferred into Arc GIS from AutoCAD may be merged together according to the activities as defined earlier in schedule generated in Microsoft Excel.

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