MCM:115 CONSTRUCTION METHODS & TECHNOLOGY

Ground Improvement Techniques

Prof. Sanjay Bhoyar

References:
 Soil Mechanics & Foundation Engineering
 P. Purushothama Raj  Pearson Education

 Ground Improvement Techniques
 P. Purushothama Raj

 IS 13094: 1992
 Selection of Ground Improvement Techniques for Foundation in Weak Soils – Guidelines  BIS

NICMAR

SANJAY BHOYAR

Ground Improvement:  Enhancement of the in-place properties of the ground by controlled application of a suitable technique NICMAR SANJAY BHOYAR .

Need for Ground Improvement:  Soft soil:  If the net loading intensity of the foundation exceeds the allowable pressure  If. even for relatively low loading intensities. the resultant settlement exceeds the acceptable limits for the structure  If the sub-soil is prone to liquefaction NICMAR SANJAY BHOYAR .

Remedies for Soft Soils:  Designing the structure/ embankment for soft soil  Relocating the structure  Removing soft soil & replacing it with good one  Treating the soil to improve its properties NICMAR SANJAY BHOYAR .

Methods for GI:  Soil compaction  Soil stabilization  Soil densification  Pre-consolidation  Injection & grouting  Soil reinforcement NICMAR SANJAY BHOYAR .

Compression of soils:  Due to:  Elastic distortions  Rearrangement of particles  Seepage of water  Crushing of particles NICMAR SANJAY BHOYAR .

dependent compression:  Gradual compression due to gradual load transfer from pore water to soil solids  Consolidation NICMAR SANJAY BHOYAR .Compressibility of soils:  Initial/ immediate compression:  Elastic distortion immediately after load application  Time.

 Primary compression:  Completely controlled by resistance to flow of water under the induced hydraulic gradient  Secondary compression:  Due to plastic deformation of the soil at zero excess pore water pressure NICMAR SANJAY BHOYAR .

Compaction of soils:  Increasing the density of a soil using force/ load  Packing the particles closer  Reduction in air voids  Without any significant change in volume of water  Higher compaction  Lower the compressibility  Higher shear strength NICMAR SANJAY BHOYAR .

earth dams  Modified Proctor Test (IS 2720 part-8)  Heavier load applications: airport & highway base course NICMAR SANJAY BHOYAR . &  Associated water content  Maximum dry density & optimum moisture content  Standard Proctor Test (IS 2720 part-7)  Most applications: highway fills.State of compaction:  Measured by:  Dry density.

Compactive Effort:  Application of a given amount of energy per unit volume of compacted soil  Static weight (pressure)  Kneading action  Impact  Vibration  Dynamic weight NICMAR SANJAY BHOYAR .

Compacting Equipment:       Smooth wheel roller Pneumatic tired roller Sheep’s foot roller Grid/ mesh roller Vibratory rollers Vibratory compactors  Plate compactors  Earth rammers/ tampers NICMAR SANJAY BHOYAR .

Pneumatic tired roller: NICMAR SANJAY BHOYAR .

Smooth wheel roller & Sheep’s foot roller NICMAR SANJAY BHOYAR .

Vibratory Plate compacters NICMAR SANJAY BHOYAR .

Field compaction:  Process:  Transferring soil from borrow areas to the construction site  Spreading soil to suitable thickness  Adding water  Compacting the soil layer  Equipment required:     NICMAR Excavating & hauling Bulldozers & graders Watering equipment Rollers/ special compacting equipment SANJAY BHOYAR .

type specification Type of equipment Lift thickness The moisture content Amount of work to obtain the necessary density Dams SANJAY BHOYAR .Compaction Specification:  Performance.type specification  Physical properties of the compacted layer  % of MDD obtained in standard test (95%)  Dry density & moisture content  Voids ratio  Highway & Airfield pavements      NICMAR  Work.

cutter method  Sand replacement method .% compaction NICMAR SANJAY BHOYAR  Core.Field control:  Checking the density & water content  For moisture content:  By taking soil samples  For every 500-1000 m2. for each layer  For density:  Conventional method – slow  Proctor needle – Lab ‘penetration resistance curve’  Nuclear moisture gauge  Nuclear density meter .

Factors affecting compaction:  Moisture content  Compactive effort  Type of soil  Method of compaction NICMAR SANJAY BHOYAR .

 Degree of compaction contributes to     The shear strength The permeability Compressibility Sustainability for repeated loads NICMAR SANJAY BHOYAR .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful