• • • Focus on “you” instead of “I” and “We” Show audience benefit or interest in the receiv er Emph asize positive, pleasan t facts

 You failed to enclose your check in the envelop. CONSIDERATE: The check was not enclosed. (passive voice) CONSIDERATE: The envelop we received did not have a check in it. (depersonalized)  Your contract tells you plainly that….. CONSIDERATE: I‟m always happy to discuss the contract terms with new employees. (receiver as part of group)  You are completely of f base your proposal. CONSIDERATE: We have dif fering interpretations of the utility of the proposals. (sender-oriented with acceptance of responsibility) CONSIDERATE: The proposed plan has three aspects that need clarification. (depersonalized)

” Some readers wonder.M.M. and 3-8 P. Monday through Friday.M.SHOW AUDIENCE BENEFIT OR INTEREST IN THE RECEIVER  Merely inserting the word “you” does not ensure you -attitude as shown in this sentence: “you will be glad to know that we now have a walk-up window open 7-9 A . The following revised sentence includes reader‟s benefit: “you can now take care of your Banking needs at our new Walk -up Window. Every weekday. It is open with a capable teller to serve you 7 -9 A . and 3-8 P.” .M. “So what?”.

PLEASANT As soon as your signature card reaches us .EMPHASIZE POSITIVE.  When you travel on Company expenses. POSITIVE. . your approved fare is for tourist class. . you will Not receive approval for first Class fare. . PLEASANT FACTS NEGATIVE-UNPLEASANT  It is impossible to open an account for you today  We don‟t refund if the Returned item is soiled and Unsalable.we will gladly open an. we refund when the return item is clean and resalable. when you travel on company expense.

CONCRETENESS  Use specific facts and figures  Put action in your verbs  Choose vivid. image-building words .

Today that figure has increased by 12 %. PRECISE In 1996 the GMAT scores averaged 600. by 1997.  Eastern Europe is making progress In obtaining investments. GENERAL.9 on a 4. In 1990 investments In eastern Europe were about US $30 million.  She is a brain. CONCRETE. Her grade point average in 1996 was 3. .USE SPECIFIC FACTS AND FIGURES  VAGUE.0 point scale. INDEFINITE Student GMAT scores are higher.they had risen to 610.

PUT ACTION IN YOUR VERBS Active voice I eat food. passive voice is eaten by me. is being eaten by me. was eaten by me. I ate food. I will eat food. I am eating food. had been eaten by me. have been eaten by me. will be eaten by me. I have eaten food. Food Food Food Food Food Food . I had eaten food.

. The proposal requires that …. professor H. will consider the Report. NOT IN NOUNS ACTION HIDING IN A “QUIET” NOUN  The function of this office is the collection of payments and the compilation of statements. Students met in the office.  Students held the meeting in the office.  The proposal has a requirement for. will give consideration to the report..PUT ACTIONS IN VERBS.  Professor H. ACTION IN VERBS This office collects Payments and compiles Statements..

In addition. NOT IN INFINITIVES Action Hiding in infinitive The duty of secretary is to Is to check all incoming Mail and to record it. it is his or her Responsibility to keep. Action in the verbs A secretary checks and Records all incoming mail And keeps the assignment book up to date . The assignment Book up to date.PUT ACTION IN VERBS.

IMAGE-BUILDING WORDS  Your double chin will be removed If you use x -products as directed. I felt like a cool breeze blowing.  I felt very good . Only one chin will remain if x Is used as directed. If two chins quarrel for a place in your collar then X-product will help settle the argument.CHOOSE VIVID.

concrete and familiar words. .CLARIT Y  Choose precise.  Construct ef fective sentences and paragraphs.

 Familiar. .  The ef ficacy of hydrochloric acid is indisputable.CHOOSE PRECISE AND FAMILIAR WORDS  Unfamiliar: after our perusal of pertinent data.  Don‟t use hydrochloric acid . It eats hell out of the pipes.  We cannot assume responsibility for the production of toxic and noxious residue with hydrochloric acid and suggest you use an alternative procedure. but the corrosive residue is incompatible with the metallic permanence. the conclusion is that a lucrative market exists for the subject property. The data we studied shows that your property is profitable and in high demand.


 Clear. After our botanist had planted 10.  Clear.000 berry plants. the deer came into our botanist‟s farm and crushed.  Unclear. I am sure you . broken down by age and gender. . Being an excellent lawyer.000 berry plants. After planting 10. the deer came into his farm and crushed them. . You can surely help us. His report focused on age and gender of managers. I am sure you can help us. His report was about managers. Being an excellent lawyer.CONSTRUCT EFFECTIVE SENTENCES AND PARAGRAPHS  Unclear. As you are an excellent lawyer. .  Clear.  Unclear.  Clear. His report about managers focused on .  Clear. . .

 Check accuracy of figures. facts. and words.  Maintain acceptable writing mechanics .CORRECTNESS  Use the right level of language.

USE THE RIGHT LEVEL OF LANGUAGE More formal Participate Procure Endeavor Ascertain deem edifice Utilize Interrogate Less formal join get try find out think (believe) building use question .

USE THE RIGHT LEVEL OF LANGUAGE Substandard Ain‟t Can‟t hardly Aim at proving Desirous to Irregardless Stoled Brung Should of More Acceptable isn‟t. aren‟t can hardly aim to prove desirous of regardless stolen brought should have .

FACTS AND WORDS  Verify your statistical data.  Double –check you totals  Avoid guessing at laws that have an impact on you. . The sender.CHECK ACCURACY OF FIGURES. and your message receiver.

Except is a verb or a preposition and relates to omitting or leaving out. eager  Between.  Accept. an use a before consonants and consonant sounds or a long „u‟ sound. “every 2 years”. except  Anxious. among  Biannually. Between involves two people or two groups. accept is a verb and means to receive. Use an before vowels or a silent „h‟.WORDS THAT CONFUSE  A . among. Biannually means “two times a year” or “every 2 years”. Anxious implies worry. biennially. three or more. eager conveys keen desire. Biennially .

Continuous means “without stopping” principal. as an adjective.  Principal.WORDS THAT CONFUSE  Continual. it means “sum of money” or “head of a school”. means ”chief main”. Principle means “rule” or “basic truth”. principle . as a noun. continuous continual means ”recurring regularly” (lapping ocean waves).

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