McClelland’s Three Needs Theory

Presented By:Mriganka Chakraborty(46) Mushfiqul Hassan Sarkar(47)

• A well known theory of motivation as opposed to hierarchy of needs or satisfaction- dissatisfaction is the theory developed by David McClelland and his associates. McClelland developed his theory based on Henry Murrays developed long list of motives and manifest needs used in his early studies of personality.

. affiliation. McClelland's theory sometimes is referred to as the three need theory or as the learned needs theory. Most of these needs can be classed as either achievement. or power. A person's motivation and effectiveness in certain job functions are influenced by these three needs.Contd…. David McClelland proposed that an individual's specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by one's life experiences.. • In his acquired-needs theory.

McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory • McClelland and colleagues studied the behavioral effects of three needs – Need for Achievement – Need for Power – Need for Affiliation • Emphasized the Need for Achievement. although they investigated all three needs .

and overcoming difficulties . competition.Need for Achievement(nAch) • A manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns individual’s issues of excellence. challenging goals. persistence.

ideally a 50% chance. • Achievers need regular feedback in order to monitor the progress of their achievements. • In high-risk projects. They prefer either to work alone or with other high achievers. Achievers avoid low-risk situations because the easily attained success is not a genuine achievement.Need for Achievement(nAch) • People with a high need for achievement (nAch) seek to excel and thus tend to avoid both low-risk and high-risk situations. High nAch individuals prefer work that has a moderate probability of success. . achievers see the outcome as one of chance rather than one's own effort.

Need for Achievement(nAch) • Strong need for achievement people – Take responsibility for results of behavior – Willing to take calculated risks – Set moderate achievement goals – Prefer to set performance standards for themselves – Prefer non routine tasks to routine assignments – Welcome feedback about how well they are doing .

mythology. art • Need for Achievement societies had high levels of economic development .Need for Achievement(nAch) • Acquire the Need for Achievement through socialization to cultural values • Presence of Need for Achievement themes in folklore.

change people or events. . influence others. and make a difference in life.Need for Power (nPow) • A manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual’s need to make an impact on others.

and this need often is perceived as undesirable.personal and institutional.Need for Power (nPow) • A person's need for power (nPow) can be one of two types . . • Managers with a high need for institutional power tend to be more effective than those with a high need for personal power. • Persons who need institutional power (also known as social power) want to organize the efforts of others to further the goals of the organization. Those who need personal power want to direct others.

Need for Power (nPow) • Strong Need for Power people – Focuses on "controlling the means of influencing the behavior of another person” – Having strong effects on other people – Means of influence: anything available to the person to control the behavior of another – Actively searches for means of influence .

exploitation • View situations from a win-lose perspective • Must win and the other party must lose – Did not feel such power behavior resulted in the type of leadership required by organizations . physical aggression.Need for Power (nPow) • Two ways of expressing the Need for Power – Dominance.

Need for Power (nPow) – Persuasion and interpersonal influence • Tries to arouse confidence in those he or she wants to influence • Clarifies group’s goals and persuades members to achieve those goals • Emphasizes group members’ ability to reach goals • Tries to develop a competence belief in group members • McClelland felt this type of power behavior characterized effective leaders in organizations .

Need for Affiliation (nAff) • A manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual’s need to establish and maintain warm. close. . intimate relationships with other people.

• They perform well in customer service and client interaction situations.Need for Affiliation (nAff) • Those with a high need for affiliation (nAff) need harmonious relationships with other people and need to feel accepted by other people. High nAff individuals prefer work that provides significant personal interaction. . • They tend to conform to the norms of their work group.

maintaining. and restoring positive affective relations with others" – Want close. and want to be in the company of others. want other people to like them.Need for Affiliation (nAff) • Strong Need for Affiliation people – Focuses on "establishing. especially those about whom they care – Like other people. . warm interpersonal relationships – Seek the approval of others.

and the subject is asked to develop a spontaneous story for each picture. .Thematic Apperception Test • McClelland used the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) as a tool to measure the individual needs of different people. The assumption is that the subject will project his or her own needs into the story. The TAT is a test of imagination that presents the subject with a series of ambiguous pictures.

. and power.Thematic Apperception Test • Psychologists have developed fairly reliable scoring techniques for the Thematic Apperception Test. affiliation. This score can be used to suggest the types of jobs for which the person might be well suited. The test determines the individual's score for each of the needs of achievement.

it is an effective form of feedback. While money is not an important motivator.Implications for Management People with different needs are motivated differently. .Employees with a high affiliation need perform best in a cooperative environment. • High need for achievement . • High need for power . They should be provided frequent feedback. • High need for affiliation .High achievers should be given challenging projects with reachable goals.Management should provide power seekers the opportunity to manage others.