Bio 1

• Recombinant DNA Technology and The Human Genome Project SDJacinto Institute of Biology UP Diliman

Bibliographic Entry

Result (w/surrounding text)

Standardized Result

Mitchel, Campbell Reece. Biology Concept and Connections. California, 1997.

"At actual size, a human cell's DNA totals about 3 meters  in length."

3.0 m

McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology.  New York: McGraw Hill, 1997.

"If stretched out, would form very thin thread, about  6 feet (2 meters) long."

2.0 m

Matthews, Harry R. DNA Structure Prerequisite Information. 1997.

"The length is (length of 1 bp)(number of bp per cell)  which is (0.34 nm)(6 × 109)"

2.0 m

Leltninger, Albert L. Biochemistry. New York: Worth,  1975.

"Chromosome 13 contains a DNA molecule about  3.2 cm long."

1.5 m

"Cell." The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: Field  Enterprises, 1996.

"On the average, a single human chromosome consists  of DNA molecule that is about 2 inches long."

2.3 m

The DNA unraveled Nucleosome

Double helix



C biology_starter/DNA.html

Recombinant DNA technology
• DNA from one source is cut and combined with DNA from another source. • Donated DNA representing a gene is cut with restriction endonucleases (RE) • RE cuts at very specific sequence of bases. • Host DNA is also cut. • Another enzyme (ligase) glues the two cut pieces together. • This engineered DNA is then inserted into an cell such as bacteria or yeast.

• Has applications in improvement of livestock and agricultural produce and therapy of certain diseases,
– Some plants made resistant to pests, diseases and drought due to Recombinant DNA technology – Human insulin is now expressed from recombinant genes expressed by bacterial vector.

Recombinant DNA tech applied-  examples
• Genetically modified organisms  (GMOs)-applications of recombinant  DNA technology
– Transgenic organisms-officially defined as  “one whose genome has been modified by  externally applied new DNA;  a term  applied to metazoans”


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Other interesting transgenic organisms
– The case of Herman -the transgenic bull containing foreign gene lactoferrin- iron containing protein.
• Herman has sired many calves all with lactoferrin gene • Successful breeding of Herman and progeny, a new source of nutritious milk may become available; has far-reaching effects for children in developing nations.

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Recombinant DNA technology applied module_4/whyitmatters.htm

What’s it all about?
• Doctors assess DNA samples to detect presence of heritable diseases • With gene therapy they can replace defective or absent genes to direct normal function • The case of defective p53 genes and carcinogenesis biol/units/cru/gendeliv.htm

The Human genome project
•  started in 1990 finished in April 2003  • objective is to know the DNA sequence of the  whole human genome ( the totality of DNA in any  human cell) •  was supported by the US Department of Energy  and National Institutes of Health. During the early  years of the HGP, the Wellcome Trust (U.K.)  became a major partner; additional contributions  came from Japan, France, Germany, China, and  others.. • Celera-private organization based in Maryland  also conducted similar project; in effect a  competitor  

Project goals
• identify all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes  in human DNA,  • determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical  base pairs that make up human DNA,  • store this information in databases,  • improve tools for data analysis,  • transfer related technologies to the private sector,  and  • address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI)  that may arise from the project.

Basic Facts revealed from human genome project
• The human genome contains 3.2 billion chemical nucleotide bases (A,G,C,T) • Average gene contains 3000 bases but varies greatly; largest known human gene is dystrophin with 2.4 million bases

We know what some of those genes do!
• Tentative assignments for some of the gene functions have been made for half of the genes of the identified human DNA sequence • Functions of the other half still unknown; the exact functions of the “known” genes not even clear

We have the most genes, but…
• In functional categories, humans have more genes than all other organisms whose genes have been sequenced. • Plants have more metabolic genes! than any other animal whose genes have been sequenced.

Significance of Human genome Project
• Can be of help in treatment of diseases;  (for instance one common goal of many  laboratories is to utilize the information  from the human genome project to unravel  the molecular mechanism of Down’s  syndrome; so far no success ) genetics/geneprinter.html

What’s left to be done?
• Just about everything! The sequence of  the human genome has been made  available for everybody’s use and  interpretation.

• Study of how variations in the human genome  affect the response to medications • Environment, diet, age, lifestyle, and state of  health all can influence a person's response to  medicines, but understanding an individual's  genetic makeup is thought to be the key to  creating personalized drugs with greater efficacy  and safety.  • May permit drugs to be tailor-made for  individuals and adapted to each person's own  genetic makeup. rl= 392&sz=138&hl=en&start=4&tbnid=yAmZeWScg1q3tM:&tbnh=126&tbnw=114&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpharmacogenomic s%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG rl= 392&sz=138&hl=en&start=4&tbnid=yAmZeWScg1q3tM:&tbnh=126&tbnw=114&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpharmacogenomic s%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG

The cases of BRCA1 and 2 and  PTPN1
• BRCA1 and 2- tumor suppressors that if  mutated can cause breast cancer

Genes involved in stroke
• H63D genetic defect in the HFE gene • one of the most common inheritable  genetic defects, especially in Europe,
–  where it's estimated one out of four people  carry the defective gene in northern Europe. – In southern Europe, even more people may  carry this genetic defect.  – leads to iron overload in the body, eventually  causing organ dysfunction, diabetes, and liver  cirrhosis, and now stroke.

• The study of how different foods may  interact with specific genes to increase the  risk of common chronic diseases such as  type 2 diabetes, obesity, heart disease,  stroke and certain cancers.  • The premise underlying nutrigenomics is  that the influence of diet on health  depends on an individual's genetic  makeup. neweconomy/13.html

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