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Mechanical Properties

of Metals
0.010 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002 0.000
0
100
200
300
400
500
CONTINUED
S
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)

Strain
Mechanical Properties
Stiffness - Elastic Modulus or Youngs Modulus (MPa)
Strength - Yield, Ultimate, Fracture, Proof, Offset Yield.
Measured as stress (MPa)
Ductility - Measure of ability to deform plastically
without fracture - Elongation, Area Reduction, Fracture
Strain - (no units or mm/mm)
Toughness, Resilience - Measure of ability to absorb
energy (J/m
3
).
Hardness - Resistance to indentation/abrasion (Various
scales, e.g.; Rockwell, Brinell, Vickers.)
Stress and Strain
In a simplistic sense, stress may be thought
of as Load/Area.
Similarly, strain is the deformation of the
component/original length.
A stress may be direct, shear, or torsional -
leading to corresponding deformations.
Stress cannot be measured directly, but
deformation can be.
Direct Stress Examples
Load, P
P
Area
Ao
Lo
AL/2
AL/2
Direct Stress - Tension
Load, P
P
Area
Ao
Lo
AL/2
AL/2
Direct Stress - Compression
S =
P
A
o
e =
AL
L
o
Engineering Stress
Engineering Strain
Tension Test
Typical Universal
Testing Machine
Extensometer
Measures AL
Measures P
Modern Materials Testing System
Hydraulic
Wedge
Grips
Specimen
Extensometer
ASTM Tension Test Specimen
0.505" Dia
2 Gauge Length
A
o
=0.20 in
2

L
o

Raw Data Obtained
L
o
a
d
,

P

(
k
N
)

Elongation, AL (mm)
Uniform Deformation
Total Elongation
Elastic
Deformation
X
Maximum
Load, P
max

Load,
P
f

Engineering Stress-Strain Curve
Elongation
0.2% offset
yield stress
Proportional Limit
E
E
(Ultimate)
Engineering Strain, e = AL/Lo)
E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s
,

S
=
P
/
A
o


S
y

S
u

Dukes Quick Tip!
Express Load in Newtons (N) and Area in
mm
2
to get Stress in MPa.

Mechanical properties of metals are almost
always given in MPa or ksi.
Imperial units: Load in kips (1000 lbf) &
Area as in
2
gives

Stress in ksi (kips/in
2
)
1000 psi = 1 ksi = 6.89 MPa
N
mm
2
~ MPa
Hookes Law
Elastic Deformation
Elastic deformation is not permanent; it means that when
the load is removed, the part returns to its original shape
and dimensions.
For most metals, the elastic region is linear. For some
materials, including metals such as cast iron, polymers, and
concrete, the elastic region is non-linear.
If the behavior is linear elastic, or nearly linear-elastic,
Hookes Law may be applied:

Where E is the modulus of elasticity (MPa)
S = Ee
Modulus of Elasticity - Stiffness
0.010 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002 0.000
0
100
200
300
400
500
CONTINUED
S
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)

Strain
E =
AS
Ae
=
(300 0)MPa
(0.015 0.0)
= 2x10
5
MPa
Atomic Origin of Stiffness
Strongly Bonded
Weakly Bonded
N
e
t

I
n
t
e
r
a
t
o
m
i
c

F
o
r
c
e
Interatomic Distance
E
dF
dr
|
\

|
.
|
ro
Shear Stress and Strain
Shear Stress, t
Shear
Strain,

shear stress, t = Shear Load / Area


shear strain, = angle of deformation (radians)
shear modulus, G = t / (elastic region)
S
h
e
a
r

S
t
r
e
s
s

Shear Strain
Elastic Properties of Materials
Poissons ratio: When a metal is strained in
one direction, there are corresponding
strains in all other directions.
For a uniaxial tension strain, the lateral strains are
constrictive.
Conversely, for a uniaxial compressive strain, the
lateral strains are expansive.
i.e.; the lateral strains are opposite in sign to the
axial strain.
The ratio of lateral to axial strains is known as
Poissons ratio, v.
Poissons Ratio, v
v =
e
x
e
z
=
e
y
e
z
For most metals,
0.25 < v < 0.35
in the elastic range
Furthermore:
E = 2G(1+v)
Plastic Deformation
S
t
r
e
s
s

Strain
0.002
0.002 0.002
S
y

S
y

S
y

Elastic Plastic
Most Metals - Al, Cu Clad Al-Alloys Low carbon Steel
Elastic Plastic
Elastic Plastic
Microstructural Origins of Plasticity
Slip, Climb and Slide of atoms in the crystal structure.
Slip and Climb occur at Dislocations and Slide occurs
at Grain Boundaries.
t
t
Elastic and Plastic Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s

Strain
Plastic
Elastic
e
e

e
p

P
Total Strain
(e,S)
e = e
e
+ e
p
e
e
=
S
E
e
p
=e e
e
The 0.2% offset yield stress
is the stress that gives a plastic
(permanent) strain of 0.002.
Elastic Recovery
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s

Loading
Unloading
Loading
Unloading
Reloading
elastic strain
Strain
Ductility - EL% & AR%
Elongation



Area Reduction
EL%=
L
f
L
o
L
o
x 100
AR% =
A
o
A
f
A
o
x 100
L
o



A
o

L
f


A
f

Ductile Vs Brittle Materials
Only Ductile materials will exhibit necking.
Ductile if EL%>8% (approximately)
Brittle if EL% < 5% (approximately)
E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s

Engineering Strain
Toughness & Resilience
Toughness: A measure of the ability of a
material to absorb energy without fracture.
(J/m
3
or N.mm/mm
3
= MPa)
Resilience: A measure of the ability of a
material to absorb energy without plastic or
permanent deformation.
(J/m
3
or N.mm/mm
3
= MPa)
Note: Both are determined as
energy/unit volume

Toughness, U
t

Engineering Strain, e = AL/Lo)
E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s
,

S
=
P
/
A
o


U
t
= Sde
o
e
f

~
(S
y
+ S
u
)
2
EL%
100
|
\

|
.
|
S
u

S
y

X
Resilience, U
r

Engineering Strain, e = AL/Lo)
E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s
,

S
=
P
/
A
o


U
r
= S de
o
e
y

~
S
y
e
y
2
=
S
y
2
2E
S
u

S
y

E
e
y

Typical Mechanical Properties
Material
Yield Stress
(MPa)
Ultimate
Stress (MPa)
Ductility
EL%
Elastic Modulus
(MPa)
Poissons
Ratio
1040 Steel 350 520 30 207000 0.30
1080 Steel 380 615 25 207000 0.30
2024 Al Alloy 100 200 18 72000 0.33
316 Stainless Steel 210 550 60 195000 0.30
70/30 Brass 75 300 70 110000 0.35
6-4 Ti Alloy 942 1000 14 107000 0.36
AZ80 Mg Alloy 285 340 11 45000 0.29
Metals in annealed (soft) condition