Presented by : Adeeb nawahda & Sufyan abu saif

Introduction
-Pickling is one of the oldest methods to food preservation. -Pickling, also known as brining or corning, is the process of preserving food by anaerobic fermentation in brine to produce lactic acid, or marinating and storing it in an acid solution, usually vinegar (acetic acid). * pickled vegetables and fruits retain a fresh texture and appearance .

- pH less than 4.6, which is sufficient to kill most bacteria. Pickling can preserve perishable foods for months. Antimicrobial herbs and spices, such as mustard,seed, garlic,cinnamon . -This procedure gives the food a salty or sour taste . - In commercial pickling, a preservative like sodium benzoate or EDTA may also be added to enhance shelf life.

Tow types of pickling :1) Direct method (quick pickling): • Quick (unfermented) pickles are made in 1 or 2 days by adding acid in the form of vinegar. * Acid inhibits the growth of destructive microorganisms .

VINEGARS
- Vinegar is a liquid substance consisting mainly of acetic acid(CH3CO2H) and water. - Cider vinegar or white distilled vinegar can be used in pickle recipes. -cider is preferred for its mellow fruity flavor ,but its color darkens the pickle over time . -distilled white vinegar is clear and ideal for most quick pickling , but its sharp .

-Do not use homemade vinegar. The level of acidity is important to both the flavor and safety of the product. - It is essential to use a high grade vinegar contains a minimum of 4% w/v (40 g/L) acetic acid and has a pH value between ( 2.0 - 3.5 ) . -Pickles may spoil if the vinegar contains less than 4 percent acetic acid. - Never alter the amount of vinegar or water.

2) Indirect method
• Brined (fermented) pickles require several weeks of “curing” at room temperature. During this period, colors and flavors change. Acid is produced as lactic acid bacteria grow (lactobacillus) . Growth of undesirable spoilage microorganisms is restricted by the salt. anaerobic conditions should be maintained during fermentation to allow naturally occurring microorganisms to grow and produce enough lactic acid, and to prevent growth of spoilage microorganisms.

INGREDIENTS
-All vegetables, fruits, spices, and herbs used in pickle products should be fresh and of high quality. Vegetables: Select tender vegetables without blemishes or mold . -Pickling will not improve poor quality products.

Salt
- Salt Use only canning or pickling salt. Table salt is pure but contains iodine and anti-caking agents that might cause pickles to darken or the liquid to become cloudy.. -Reduced sodium salt may be used in quick pickle but the pickles will have a different flavor. Reduced sodium salt should not be used in fermented pickle. Always use the amount and type of salt specified -The brine draws moisture and natural sugars from the vegetable . Lactic acid is then produced , which prevents spoiling.

Water
Water Use soft water for best results. Extremely hard water can interfere with curing and cause discoloration of pickles, particularly if the water has a high iron content. Some types of hard water can be softened by the following method : Boil water for 5 minutes, cover and let the water stand 24 hours. When the sediment has settled to the bottom, pour off the water without disturbing the sediment. Discard sediment and use water . Distilled or bottled water can be used for pickles also, but may be expensive .

Sugar
Sugar : Use white granulated sugar unless otherwise specified. Brown sugar may darken the liquid and change the flavor slightly. If you plan to use a nonnutritive sweetener, use tested recipes that accompany these products .

Spices and Herbs Spices and Herbs Spices and herbs lose quality rapidly after opening; for best flavor always buy fresh seasonings yearly. Use clean, fresh, insect-free heads of dill. Avoid over mature, dry, brown dill. Fresh dill is preferred because it gives better flavor.

Common Pickle Problems
Soft or slippery 1. Brine or vinegar was too weak 2. Pickles were not kept covered with liquid during brining and when packed in jars. 3. Pickles were not processed long enough to destroy spoilage microorganisms. 4. If unspoiled, pickles were over processed or heated at too high a temperature (over 200° F).

White sediment in bottom of jars 1. Harmless yeast grew on the surface and then settled. 2. Table salt was used. 3. Temperature was not controlled. Dark or discolored 1. Iron present in hard water. 2. Ground spices were used instead of whole spices. 3. Iodized salt used.

QUALITY
Many factors affect pickle quality, including :1) soil and growing conditions, 2) type of salt and vinegar used, 3) variety and maturity of produce, 4) time lapse between gathering and pickling, 5) method of processing. -Spoilage can result when improper processing, unsanitary techniques, or poor quality ingredients are used.

processing
- pickles are process to stop fermentation and growth of bacteria that cause spoilage . - caution :it's extremely important to wait until

fermented pickles taste tart before processing .
-use either conventional boiling -water canner processing or lower temperature pasteurization.

conventional boiling - water canning processing
1- arrange the jar on the rack of the canner half field with very hot water (140F, for raw packed food ,180f for hot packed foods). add more very hot water, if needed to bring the water level up to 1 inch above jar tops. pace a tight -fitting cover on canner .

2-when the water boils, set a time for the recommender time (see table) , increase processing time for higher altitude, as directed to make up for lower boiling point of water ,keep water boiling gently and steadily ,add water boiling to cover the jar.
3-immediately remove the jar from canner at the end of processing time . 4-put the jars on a rack or cloths so air can move freely around them

pasteurized at low temperature
pasteurized at lower temperature than the boiling point of water may result in better quality products . follow directions carefully to avoid possible spoilage : 1-place jars in canner half fields with warm water (120 to 140 f) , add hot water to level of a 1 inch above the jars

2-heat the water 180 to 185 f and start timer , process for 30 min checking with candy or jelly thermometer to be certain that the water temperature stay at least 180 (temperature higher than 185 may soften pickles ). 3-immediately remove the jar from canner at the end of processing time .

4-put the jars on a rack or cloths so air can move freely around them

Pickled cucumber
Ingredients :
1 kg of fresh little cucumber. 3cups of sea salt . 4 cups of vinegar. 5 grains of black pepper

Way:
-Wash cucumber and placed in a clay pot and then melted salt water well and added to the cucumber, covers and stays soaked for 3 days. -Put vinegar and peppercorns in a saucepan of stainless pot placed on the fire to boil vinegar. -Stays the vinegar boil for 5 minutes, then leave to cool slightly and pour over the cucumber to completely overwhelmed and a little over a surface. -Cover tightly prematurely and set aside a period of two months.

Nutritional value
Nutritional value depends on the type of vegetable pickles used in the preparation of which contain some vitamins and minerals, but due to the consumption simple pickles quantities in the diet, the nutritional benefit is limited. And pickles contain a large amount of water (90%) which is very high in salt, so not suitable for people with high blood pressure, heart disease and diabetes.

And also not suitable for people with burning and stomach ulcers because they contain a high proportion of the acid. As ordinary people, they can eat small amounts of pickles and to open the appetite.

Harms many, we remind you of them
pickles contain a large amount of salt and vinegar, sour, who works on conservation, which cause health problems for those who suffer from heart and kidney disease, and others. pickles are not stored properly on a high percentage of fungi that are toxic to the body and, especially as they bring severe damage to liver cells and heart muscles and the nervous system, kidneys and muscles in general.

References
Handbook of food preservation / editor M. Shafiur
Rahan. -- 2nd ed. - PRESERVING FOOD WITHOUT FREEZING OR CANNING. by Deborah Madison.

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