ECE201 Lect-11 1

Nodal and Loop Analysis cont’d
(8.8)
Dr. Holbert
March 1, 2006
ECE201 Lect-11 2
Advantages of Nodal Analysis
• Solves directly for node voltages.
• Current sources are easy.
• Voltage sources are either very easy or
somewhat difficult.
• Works best for circuits with few nodes.
• Works for any circuit.
ECE201 Lect-11 3
Advantages of Loop Analysis
• Solves directly for some currents.
• Voltage sources are easy.
• Current sources are either very easy or
somewhat difficult.
• Works best for circuits with few loops.
ECE201 Lect-11 4
Disadvantages of Loop Analysis
• Some currents must be computed from loop
currents.
• Does not work with non-planar circuits.
• Choosing the supermesh may be difficult.

• FYI: PSpice uses a nodal analysis approach
ECE201 Lect-11 5
Where We Are
• Nodal analysis is a technique that allows us
to analyze more complicated circuits than
those in Chapter 2.
• We have developed nodal analysis for
circuits with independent current sources.
• We now look at circuits with dependent
sources and with voltage sources.
ECE201 Lect-11 6
Example Transistor Circuit
1kO
+

V
in

2kO
+10V
+

V
o

Common Collector
(Emitter Follower)
Amplifier
ECE201 Lect-11 7
Why an Emitter Follower
Amplifier?
• The output voltage is almost the same as the
input voltage (for small signals, at least).
• To a circuit connected to the input, the EF
amplifier looks like a 180kO resistor.
• To a circuit connected to the output, the EF
amplifier looks like a voltage source
connected to a 10O resistor.
ECE201 Lect-11 8
A Linear Large Signal Equivalent
5V
100I
b

+

V
o

50O
I
b

2kO 1kO
+

+ –
0.7V
ECE201 Lect-11 9
Steps of Nodal Analysis
1. Choose a reference node.
2. Assign node voltages to the other nodes.
3. Apply KCL to each node other than the
reference node; express currents in terms of
node voltages.
4. Solve the resulting system of linear
equations.
ECE201 Lect-11 10
A Linear Large Signal Equivalent
5V
100I
b

+

V
o

50O
I
b

2kO
1kO
0.7V
1
2 3 4
V
1

V
2

V
3
V
4

+

+ –
ECE201 Lect-11 11
Steps of Nodal Analysis
1. Choose a reference node.
2. Assign node voltages to the other nodes.
3. Apply KCL to each node other than the
reference node; express currents in terms of
node voltages.
4. Solve the resulting system of linear
equations.
ECE201 Lect-11 12
KCL @ Node 4
O
= +
O
÷
k 2
100
50
4 4 3
V
I
V V
b
100I
b

+

V
o

50O
I
b

2kO
1kO
+

0.7V
1
2 3 4
V
1

V
2

V
3
V
4

5V
+ –
ECE201 Lect-11 13
The Dependent Source
• We must express I
b
in terms of the node
voltages:


• Equation from Node 4 becomes
O
÷
=
k 1
2 1
V V
I
b
0
k 2 k 1
100
50
4 2 1 4 3
=
O
÷
O
÷
+
O
÷ V V V V V
ECE201 Lect-11 14
How to Proceed?
• The 0.7V voltage supply makes it
impossible to apply KCL to nodes 2 and 3,
since we don’t know what current is passing
through the supply.
• We do know that
V
2
- V
3
= 0.7V
ECE201 Lect-11 15
100I
b

+

V
o

50O
I
b

2kO
1kO
0.7V
1
4
V
1

V
2

V
3
V
4

+

+ –
ECE201 Lect-11 16
KCL @ the Supernode
0
50 k 1
4 3 1 2
=
O
÷
+
O
÷ V V V V
ECE201 Lect-11 17
Another Analysis Example
• We will analyze a possible implementation
of an AM Radio IF amplifier. (Actually,
this would be one of four stages in the IF
amplifier.)
• We will solve for output voltages using
nodal (and eventually) mesh analysis.
• This circuit is a bandpass filter with center
frequency 455kHz and bandwidth 40kHz.
ECE201 Lect-11 18
IF Amplifier
4kO
1V Z 0°
+

V
out

100pF
160O
100pF
80kO

+
V
x
100V
x

+

+

ECE201 Lect-11 19
Nodal AC Analysis
• Use AC steady-state analysis.
• Start with a frequency of e=2t 455,000.
ECE201 Lect-11 20
Impedances
4kO
1V Z 0°
+

V
out

160O
80kO

+
V
x
100V
x

-j3.5kO
-j3.5kO
+

+

ECE201 Lect-11 21
Nodal Analysis
1 2
4kO
1V Z 0°
+

V
out

160O
80kO

+
V
x
100V
x

-j3.5kO
-j3.5kO
+

+

ECE201 Lect-11 22
KCL @ Node 1
0
3.5k - 3.5k -
100
0 6 1 4k
V 1
2 1 1 1 1
=
O
÷
+
O
÷
+
O
+
O
÷
j j
x
V V V V V V
O
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
O
+
O
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
O
+
O
+
O
+
O
4k
V 1
3.5k
1
3.5k -
100
3.5k -
1
3.5k -
1
0 6 1
1
k 4
1
2
1
j j
j j
V
V
2
V V ÷ =
x
ECE201 Lect-11 23
KCL @ Node 2
0
0k 8
100
3.5k -
2 1 2
=
O
÷
+
O
÷
x
j
V V V V
0
0k 8
101
3.5k -
1
3.5k
1
2 1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
O
+
O
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
O j j
V V
2
V V ÷ =
x
ECE201 Lect-11 24

O
=

O
+
O
÷
O
O
+
O
÷
O
÷
O
+
O
0
4k
V 1
80k
101
3.5k
1
3.5k
1
3.5k
1
3.5k
100
3.5k
2
160
1
k 4
1
2
1
V
V
j j
j j j
Matrix Formulation
ECE201 Lect-11 25
Solve Equations
V
1
= 0.0259V-j0.1228V = 0.1255VZ-78°
V
2
= 0.0277V-j4.15×10
-4
V=0.0277V Z -0.86°
V
out
= -100V
2
= 2.77V Z 179.1°
ECE201 Lect-11 26
Class Examples
• Learning Extension E3.6

• Learning Extension E8.13
• Learning Extension E8.14(a)