1 . Extends far beyond humans and other animals we may encounter Figure 32.

heterotrophic eukaryotes with tissues that develop from embryonic layers Several characteristics of animals ◦ Sufficiently define the group  . Animal are multicellular.

• Animals are heterotrophs – That ingest their food .

• Animals are multicellular eukaryotes • Their cells lack cell walls .

leading to the formation of a blastula • The blastula undergoes gastrulation – Resulting in the formation of embryonic tissue layers and a gastrula .• Most animals reproduce sexually – With the diploid stage usually dominating the life cycle • After a sperm fertilizes an egg – The zygote undergoes cleavage.

Blastocoel Cleavage Cleavage Zygote Eight-cell stage Blastocoel Endoderm Ectoderm Blastula Cross section of blastula Gastrula Blastopore Gastrulation .

• Early members of the animal fossil record – Include the Ediacaran fauna .

• The Cambrian explosion – Marks the earliest fossil appearance of many major groups of living animals – Is described by several current hypotheses .

becoming important marine ecological niches for other organisms .• During the Mesozoic era – Dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates – Coral reefs emerged.

• The beginning of this era – Followed mass extinctions of both terrestrial and marine animals • Modern mammal orders and insects – Diversified during the Cenozoic .

or lack of it • Some animals have radial symmetry – Like in a flower pot Radial symmetry. The parts of a radial animal.• Animals can be categorized – According to the symmetry of their bodies. such as a sea anemone (phylum Cnidaria). radiate from the center. . Any imaginary slice through the central axis divides the animal into mirror images.

such as a lobster (phylum Arthropoda). Only one imaginary cut divides the animal into mirrorimage halves. has a left side and a right side. Bilateral symmetry. . A bilateral animal.

• Based on certain features seen in early development – Many animals can be categorized as having one of two developmental modes: protostome development or deuterostome development .

 In protostome development ◦ Cleavage is spiral and determinate  In deuterostome development ◦ Cleavage is radial and indeterminate Protostome development (examples: molluscs. determinate cleavage. Spiral and determinate Radial and indeterminate . protostome development begins with spiral. arthropods) Eight-cell stage Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms. In general. chordates) Eight-cell stage (a) Cleavage. annelids. Deuterostome development is characterized by radial. indeterminate cleavage.

the coelom forms from mesodermal outpocketings of the archenteron (enterocoelous development). In protostome development  In deuterostome development Coelom Archenteron Coelom Mesoderm Blastopore Blastopore Enterocoelous: Schizocoelous: solid folds of archenteron masses of mesoderm form coelom split and form coelom ◦ The splitting of the initially solid masses of mesoderm to form the coelomic cavity is called schizocoelous development ◦ Formation of the body cavity is described as enterocoelous development (b) Coelom formation. Mesoderm Figure 32. In deuterostome development. Coelom formation begins in the gastrula stage.9b . the coelom forms from splits in the mesoderm (schizocoelous development). In protostome development.

 In protostome development ◦ The blastopore becomes the mouth  In deuterostome development ◦ The blastopore becomes the anus Anus Mouth Digestive tube Mouth Anus Anus develops from blastopore Figure 32.9c Mouth develops from blastopore .