# Classification of Digital Circuits

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Combinational.

Output depends only on current input values.
Output depends on current input values and present state of the circuit, where the present state of the circuit is the current value of the devices’ memory. Also called finite state machines.

Sequential.

State of a Circuit
The contents of storage elements.  A collection of know internal signal values that contain information about the past necessary to account the future behavior of the circuit.

Clock

Signal that determines the change of state in most sequential circuits.

Bi-stable Elements
The simplest sequential circuit.  It consist of a pair of inverters connected as shown below. Notice the feedback loop.

Digital Analysis
Two stable states.  If Q is HIGH then the lower inverter has a HIGH at its input and a LOW at its output. This in turn forces the upper inverter’s input to be LOW and its output to be HIGH.  If Q is LOW then the lower inverter has a LOW at its input and a HIGH at its output. This in turn forces the upper inverter’s input to be HIGH and its output to be LOW.

Analog Analysis  Considering the steady state behavior of the bistable element.     Vin1 Vin1 Vin1 Vin1 = = = = Vout2 T(Vin2) T(Vout1) T(T(Vin1)) .

.Analog Analysis  Metastable behavior:   Consider the middle intersecting point in the diagram shown below. What would happen if a small amount of noise varies either input voltage.

.Analog Analysis  The drawing on this slide shows a very good analogy to the stable and metastable behavior of a bistable element.

Latches and Flip-Flops Binary cells capable of storing 1 bit of information.  One or more inputs.  .  Generates one of two possible stable states.  Two outputs labeled Q and Q’.

The output of a flip–flop changes at specific times determined by a clocking signal.Latches and Flip-Flops  These sequential devices differ in the way their outputs are changed:   The output of a latch changes independent of a clocking signal. .

 The S input sets the Q output to 1 while R reset it to 0.S-R Latch SR latch based on NOR gates.  .

S-R Latch When R=S=0 then the output keeps the previous value. and the latch may go to an unpredictable next state.  When R=S=1 then Q=Q’=0.  .

It is confusing and it creates problems.S-R Latch  Double negation is not a good idea. .

S-R Latch .

 The S’ input sets the Q output to 1 while R’ reset it to 0.  .S’-R’ Latch S’R’ latch based on NAND gates.

and the latch may go to an unpredictable next state.  When R’=S’=0 then Q=Q’=1.S’-R’ Latch When R’=S’=1 then the output keeps the previous value.  .

S-R Latch With Enable  The outputs change only when the enable input C is asserted. .

.S-R Latch With Enable  Notice that the outputs only change when the input C is asserted.

C is an enable input:   When C=1 then the output follows the input D and the latch is said to be open. . When C=0 then the output retains its last value and the latch is said to be closed. Due to this fact this latch is also called transparent latch.D Latch   This latch eliminates the problem that occurs in the S’R’ latch when R=S=0.

D Latch .

D Latch For proper operation the D input must not change during a time interval around the falling edge of C.  .  This time interval is defined by the setup time – tsetup and the hold time – thold .

 .Edge Triggered D Flip-Flop This flip-flop is made out of two D latches.  When CLK_L = 1 the master is open (on) and the slave is closed (off). Qm and Ds follow Dm . and the second the slave. The first latch is the master.

the slave is open and Qm is transferred to Qs . Note that Qs does not change if Dm changes because the master latch is closed leaving Qm fixed. .Edge Triggered D Flip-Flop  When CLK_L = 0 the master is closed.

Edge Triggered D Flip-Flop Positive edge-triggered D flip-flop.  Q* = D  .

.Edge Triggered D Flip-Flop  If the set-up and hold times are not met the flip-flop’s output will go to a stable. though unpredictable. state.

 PR (preset) – Q = 1.  .Edge Triggered D Flip-Flop Asynchronous inputs are used to force the output of the flip-flop to a particular state.  CLR (clear) – Q = 0.

Edge Triggered D Flip-Flop .

Edge Triggered D Flip-Flop  Edge triggered D flip-flop with enable. .

Scan Flip-Flop  This flip-flop allows its inputs to be driven from alternate sources. . which can be very useful during device testing.

Master/Slave S-R Flip-Flop     The postponed output indicator shows that the output signal does not change until the enable C input is negated. Q* = S+R’Q SR = 0 . Flip-flops with this kind of behavior are called pulse-triggered flip-flops.

Master/Slave S-R Flip-Flop .

except in the case where J=K=1. . In this case the outputs of the J-K flip-flop will toggle to the opposite state.Master/Slave J-K Flip-Flop  The J and the K inputs of the J-K flipflop are analogous to the S and R inputs of the S-R flip-flop.

Master/Slave J-K Flip-Flop  Q* = JQ’+K’Q .

Edge Triggered J-K Flip-Flop  Q* = JQ’+K’Q .

Edge Triggered J-K Flip-Flop  74LS109 .

T Flip-Flop Flip-flop changes state every tick of the clock.  Q* = Q’  .

 Q* = ENQ’+EN’Q  .T Flip-Flop With Enable Flip-flop changes state every tick of the clock when enable is asserted.

 .Clocked Synchronous State-Machine Analysis State machine – Another term for a sequential circuit.  Synchronous – Same clock signal is used by all flip-flops.  A state machine with n flip-flops can have up to 2n distinct states.  Clocked – Refers to the fact that their flip-flops employ a clock input.

input) Output logic – combinational logic circuit which determines the output. Moore Model. .State Machine Structure State memory – a set of n flip-flops.   Next-state = F(current state.  There are two models for the output logic:    Mealy Model.  Next-state logic – combinational logic circuit which determines the next state.

Mealy Model  The output is based on both current state and input.input) .  Output = G(current state.

Moore Model   The output is based on current state only. .  Output = G(current state) In high speed circuits the output circuit may be absent and the output is generated directly from the flip-flop’s outputs. This is called output coded state assignment.

Mealy Model  Pipelined outputs – a design approach that ensures the output of a Mealy model circuit only changes with the clock. .

 .Analysis Determine the next-state and output functions F and G.  Use F and G to construct a state/output table that completely specifies the next state and output of the circuit for every possible combination of current state and input.  Draw a state diagram.

State Machines With D Flip-Flops   D0 = Q0 · EN’ + Q0’ · EN D1 = Q1 · EN’ + Q1’ · Q0 · EN + Q1 · Q0’ · EN .

State Machines With D Flip-Flops     Q0* = D0 Q1* = D1 Q0* = Q0 · EN’ + Q0’ · EN Q1* = Q1 · EN’ + Q1’ · Q0 · EN + Q1 · Q0’ · EN .

State Machines With D Flip-Flops  MAX = Q1 · Q0 · EN .

State Machines With D Flip-Flops    Q0* = Q0 · EN’ + Q0’ · EN Q1* = Q1 · EN’ + Q1’ · Q0 · EN + Q1 · Q0’ · EN MAX = Q1 · Q0 · EN Present State Q1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Q0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Input EN 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Next State Q1* 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 Q0* 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 Output MAX 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Present State Input S A A B B C C D D EN 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Next State Output S* A B B C C D D A MAX 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 .

State Machines With D Flip-Flops .

State Machines With D Flip-Flops .

State Machines With D Flip-Flops .

State Machines With J-K FlipFlops .

. Assign to each state a unique combination from the set derived above.Clocked Synchronous State Machine Design         Derive a state/output table from the problem specification. Draw logic diagram. Minimize the number of states in the state/output table by eliminating equivalent states. Choose a set of state variables. Choose a flip-flop type and derive its excitation table. Create a transition/output table. Derive the excitation and output equations. Using the excitation table fill the values for the input excitation function columns on the transition/output table.

 See state/output table below.Clocked Synchronous State Machine Design Design a sequential circuit with one input ( I ) and one output ( Z )The output is asserted when the input sequence 0-1-1 is received.  Present State Init S S S 0 Input I 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Next state S0 Init S0 S 01 S0 S 011 S S 011 011 Output Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 01 011 .

State Init S0 S 01 S 011 Q1 0 0 1 1 Q0 0 1 1 0 .Clocked Synchronous State Machine Design  Set of state variables and their unique assignment to the different states.

Clocked Synchronous State Machine Design  Transition/output table Present State Q1 Q0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Input I 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Next state Q1* Q0* 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 Output Z 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 .

Clocked Synchronous State Machine Design  Excitation table. Present State 0 0 1 1 Next State 0 1 0 1 D 0 1 0 1 Required inputs J K 0 1 X X X X 1 0 T 0 1 1 0 .

Clocked Synchronous State Machine Design Present State Q1 Q0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Input I 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Next state Q1* Q0* 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 Output Z 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 J1 0 0 0 1 X X X X Input Excitation K1 J0 X X X X 0 0 1 0 1 0 X X 0 0 X X K0 X X 0 0 X X 0 1  Equations derived from the table above:      J1 = IQ0 K1 = I’Q0 J0 = I’Q1‘ K0 = IQ1 Z = Q 1 Q0 ’ .

Clocked Synchronous State Machine Design  Logic diagram.      J1 = IQ0 K1 = I’Q0 J0 = I’Q1‘ K0 = IQ1 Z = Q 1 Q0 ’ .