HYDROPOWER

PRAJAPATI KAUSHIK M. ROLL NO. – 064 LAXMI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,SARIGAM

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FACTS ABOUT HYDROPOWER PLANT

The World’s hydropower plants output a combined total of 675,000 megawatts, the energy equivalent of 3.6 billion barrels of oil. worldwide, hydro powers plant produce about 24% of world’s electricity and supply more than one billion people with power. hydropower provides about 10% of electricity in united states. India produces more than 12% of its electricity with hydropower. Norway produces more than 99% of its electricity with hydropower. New Zealand uses hydropower for 75% of its electricity.
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World Energy Sources

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Major Hydropower Producers

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HYDROPOWER PLANT

A hydropower plant uses the force of falling water to make electricity. Flowing water creates energy that can be captured and turned into electricity. This is called hydroelectric power or hydropower. A typical hydro plant is a system with three parts: a power plant where the electricity is produced. a dam that can be opened or closed to control water flow. a reservoir (artificial lake) where water can be stored.
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Hydropower to Electric Power
Electrical Energy Electricity

Potential Energy

Kinetic Energy

Mechanical Energy
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THE POWER OF WATER

Hydropower (from hydro meaning water) is energy that comes from the force of moving water. The fall and movement of water is part of a continuous natural cycle called the water cycle. The moisture eventually falls to the earth as rain or snow, replenishing the water in the oceans and rivers. Gravity drives the water, moving it from high ground to low ground. The force of moving water can be extremely powerful. Hydropower is called a renewable energy source because the water on the earth is continuously replenished by precipitation. As long as the water cycle continues, we won’t run out of this energy source.
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Hydrologic Cycle

8 http://www1.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/hydro_how.html

CONCEPT OF HYDRO POWER PLANT

Hydro system makes use of falling water in a stream or river or storage dam between two points to generate mechanical power through a turbine which is converted into electrical power through a generator attached to turbine in a power house. Power is expressed as kw or mw depending on capacity of station. Amount of water flow diverted from stream or river or dam called discharge (q) expressed in litres /sec or cumecs or cusecs and difference in elevation between two upstream and downstream points called gross head (h) expressed in feet or metres. Electricity generated in alternating current (ac) mode and generating voltage expressed as volts (v) or kilo volts (kv) 9 depending on capacity of station.

COMPONENT OF HYDRO POWER PLANT

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In general, larger the scale of a system, more the number of components. Intake: water from the river/spring/dam/irrigation channel is diverted from its main course. Generally weir used to divert water through intake into open channel. Water conductor system : leads water from intake to head of penstock. De-silting basin with spillway : small tank designed to desilt water. Provide spillway - a flow regulator for the channel. Combined with control gates to provide means of emptying channel. Spill flow fed back to river. Forebay tank: at head of penstock. Serves as buffer to control sudden flow and pressure variations. 10

COMPONENT OF HYDRO POWER PLANT
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Penstock: pipeline supplying water from forebay to turbine. Mild steel, upvc and hdpe - most commonly used materials. Power house: houses turbine – generator with mechanical control valves and electrical control panels. Switch yard and connection to distribution system. Tail race channel: leads water from turbines(s) back into stream/river/irrigation channel. Turbine and generator: hydro power in jet at end of penstock transmitted to turbine runner - changes to mechanical power. Governor: ensures that generator is not affected when load on it changes. Hydraulic, or electronic. Depends on the generator. Generator: electricity generated when turbine drives generator 11 -most common type of generator produces alternative current and known as alternator.

HYDROPOWER PLANT
Inlet gate Air inlet Surge shaft

Penstock
Tunnel Sand trap Trash rack

Tail water

Self closing valve Main valve Turbine Draft tube Draft tube gate

HOW A HYDROPLANT WORKS


To generate electricity, a dam opens its gates to allow water from the reservoir above to flow down through large tubes called penstocks. At the bottom of the penstocks, the fast-moving water spins the blades of turbines. The turbines are connected to generators to produce electricity. The electricity is then transported via huge transmission lines to a local utility company.

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hydrodams

A dam serves two purposes at a hydro plant. First, a dam increases the head or height of the water. Second, it controls the flow of water. Dams release water when it is needed for electricity production. Special gates called spillway gates release excess water from the reservoir during heavy rainfalls. Dams are built on rivers where the terrain will produce an artificial lake or reservoir above the dam. Most dams are built for flood control and irrigation, not electric power generation. It’s easier to build a hydro plant where there is a natural waterfall. Dams, which are artificial waterfalls, are the next best way.
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Conventional Impoundment Dam

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Schematic of Impound Hydropower

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Terminology

Head

Water must fall from a higher elevation to a lower one to release its stored energy. The difference between these elevations (the water levels in the forebay and the tailbay) is called head
high-head (800 or more feet) medium-head (100 to 800 feet) low-head (less than 100 feet)

Dams: three categories
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Power is proportional to the product of head x flow
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Scale of Hydropower Projects
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Large-hydro

More than 100 MW feeding into a large electricity grid 15 - 100 MW usually feeding a grid 1 - 15 MW - usually feeding into a grid Above 100 kW, but below 1 MW Either stand alone schemes or more often feeding into the grid From 5kW up to 100 kW Usually provided power for a small community or rural industry in remote areas away from the grid. From a few hundred watts up to 5kW Remote areas away from the grid.

Medium-hydro

Small-hydro

Mini-hydro
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Micro-hydro
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Pico-hydro
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Ecological Impacts


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Loss of forests, wildlife habitat, species. Degradation of upstream catchment areas due to inundation of reservoir area. Rotting vegetation also emits greenhouse gases. Loss of aquatic biodiversity, fisheries, other downstream services. Cumulative impacts on water quality, natural flooding. Disrupt transfer of energy, sediment, nutrients. Sedimentation reduces reservoir life, erodes turbines  Creation of new wetland habitat  Fishing and recreational opportunities provided by new 19 reservoirs

Environmental and Social Issues
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Land use – inundation and displacement of people Impacts on natural hydrology  Increase evaporative losses  Altering river flows and natural flooding cycles  Sedimentation/silting Impacts on biodiversity  Aquatic ecology, fish, plants, mammals Water chemistry changes  Mercury, nitrates, oxygen  Bacterial and viral infection Seismic Risks Structural dam failure risks
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Impacts of Hydroelectric Dams

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ADVANTAGES
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Hydropower’s fuel supply (flowing water) is clean and is renewed yearly by snow and rainfall. hydro plants do not emit pollutants into the air because they burn no fuel. With growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions and increased demand for electricity, hydropower may become more important in the future. Hydropower facilities offer a range of additional benefits. Many dams are used to control flooding and regulate water supply, and reservoirs provide lakes for recreational purposes, such as boating and fishing. Low operating and maintenance cost.
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DISADVANTAGES

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Damming rivers may permanently alter river systems and wildlife habitats. Fish, for one, may no longer be able to swim upstream. Hydro plant operations may also affect water quality by churning up dissolved metals that may have been deposited by industry long ago. Hydropower operations may increase silting, change water temperatures, and lower the levels of dissolved oxygen. Degradation of upstream catchment areas due to inundation of reservoir area. High initial capital cost.
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Efficiency of Hydropower Plants

Hydropower is very efficient

Efficiency = (electrical power delivered ÷ (potential energy of head water) Frictional drag and turbulence of flow Friction and magnetic losses in turbine & generator

Typical losses are due to
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Overall efficiency ranges from 75-95%.

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