DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS

By Purnachand Simhadri Department of ECE

Output transducer 2 . Optical fiber. etc.What is communication?  Transmission of information from a source to destination through a medium Info source Voice/Audio/Video Coaxial Cable. CH Wireless.

3 . Noise and the form in which it carries the information. Optical fiber. Every channel has its own characteristics in terms of BW. etc.What is communication?  Transmission of information from a source to destination through a medium Info source Voice/Audio/Video Output transducer Coaxial Cable. CH Wireless.

What is communication?  Transmission of information from a source to destination through a medium Info source CH Coaxial Cable Output transducer 4 in form of electrical signal .

What is communication?  Transmission of information from a source to destination through a medium Info source CH Optical Fiber in the form of light Output transducer 5 .

What is communication?  Transmission of information from a source to destination through a medium Info source CH Wireless in the form of RF wave Output transducer 6 .

Modulation Info source modulation signal to a that is suitable for transmission over a given channel Output demod transducer 7 Modulation is the process of converting information form CH .

in analog form. Info source Analog modulation modulation depending on of information and type of the channel.Analog Communication  Modulation process will be done using the information signal. to be transmitted. Output transducer 8 Thus. Analog process is the type CH source Analog demod .

to be transmitted.Digital Communication  Modulation process will be done using the Info source information signal. in digital form. Source to symbols Source encoder Channel encoder Digital modulation channel CH Output transducer Symbols to source Source decoder Channel decoder Digital demod 9 .

channel CH Quantization: Mapping samples to a finite no.Digital Communication Info source Source to symbols Source encoder Channel encoder Digital modulation Sampling: Conversion of continuous time signal to discrete time signal.of symbols Output transducer Symbols to source Source decoder Channel decoder Digital demod 10 .

of bits per symbol. In general this Process is called data compression Output transducer Symbols to source Source decoder Channel decoder Digital demod 11 . The main aim of the source encoder is channel CH to minimize the no.Digital Communication Info source Source to symbols Source encoder Channel encoder Digital modulation Source Encoder: Converts the symbols into binary Sequence.

Digital Communication Info source Source to symbols Source encoder Channel encoder Digital modulation Binary Interface channel CH Output transducer Symbols to source Source decoder Channel decoder Digital demod 12 .

of redundancyChannel bits. It has to Source Digital Output Symbols Minimize the no.Digital Communication Info source Source to symbols Source encoder Channel encoder Digital modulation transducer Channel Encoder: Adds some redundancy bits to input sequence so that any errors occurred during transmission CH can be corrected/detected at receiving end. to source decoder decoder demod 13 .

CH Channel decoder will receive 01 or 10 or 00 or 11 00 or 11 => no error 01 or 10 => error can be detected but can’t be Source Channel Digital Output Symbols corrected to source transducer decoder decoder demod 14 . knowing that channel makes only one bit errors.Digital Communication Info source Source to symbols Source encoder Channel encoder Digital modulation 0 – 00 1 – 11.

Digital Communication Info source Source to symbols Source encoder Channel encoder Digital modulation 0 – 000 1 – 111. 000 or 111 => no error Otherwise => error can be detected and corrected Output transducer Symbols to source Source decoder Channel decoder Digital demod 15 . knowing that channel makes only one bit errors. Channel decoder will receive 001/010/100/000/110/101/ CH 011/111.

Eg: Bit sequence will be embedded on to a RF Source Output Symbols wave for the transmission overChannel a wirelessDigital channel transducer to source decoder decoder demod 16 .Digital Communication Info source Source to symbols Source encoder Channel encoder Digital modulation Digital Modulation: is the process of converting output of channel encoder to a form that is suitable for CH transmission over a given channel.

 In digital communication systems errors can be detected and some times can be corrected by means of channel encoding process. quantization and source coding.Conclusions  Analog modulation process is depending on type of the information source and type of the channel  In digital communication all information signals are converted into binary sequence by means of sampling. 17 .  Digital modulation process is independent of type of information source and only depending on the channel used.

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