Acid rain

Introduction

Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic(elevated levels of hydrogen ions). It can have harmful effects on plants , aquatic animals, and infrastructure through the position of wet deposition. Acid rains are caused by the emissions of nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxide which react with the water molecule in the atmosphere to produce acids. Government have made efforts since 1970’s to reduce the emission of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere with positive results. However , the nitrogen oxides can be naturally caused by lightening strikes , or release of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere by volcano eruptions.

•Distilled water once carbon dioxide is removed has a neutral ph of 7 •Liquids with a ph less than 7 are acidic and those with ph greater than 7 are alkaline.•“Acid rain” is a popular term referring to the deposition of wet (rain .7 because co2 and h2o in the air react together to form carbonic acid. and dew) and dry (acidifying particles and gases) acidic components. but un polluted rain also contains other chemicals.fog . cloud water . •A more accurate term is “acid deposition”. •“clean” or unpolluted rain has a slightly acidic ph of over 5. . snow .

. H2O(1) +CO2(g) = H2CO3(aq)  carbonic acid then can ionize in water forming low concentrations of hydronium and carbonate ions:  H20(1) + H2CO3(aq) = HCO3 (aq) + H3O (aq)  acid deposition as an environmental issue would include additional acids to H2CO3.

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• Public awareness increased since 1970’s through the medium of the New York times news paper . • Though acidic rain was discovered in this period it was not until the late 1960’s that scientists began widely observing and studying the phenomenon. • In 1852 the relation between the rains and the atmosphere was proved by Robert Angus Smith in England .There were countries like China and Russia were these rains affected very most also. emissions of SO2 and NO2 to the atmosphere increased. acidic city air on limestone and marble was noted in the 17th century by John Evelyn . who found the reactions of the rains with the marbles. The term “acid rain” was also named by him . • Canadian Harold Harvey fist discovered “dead lake”.history • The corrosive effect of polluted. . • Since industrial revolution.

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this principle contributed to the acid producing gases in the atmosphere by the volcanoes . chemical activities. The acid gases are also formed from the components like the nitrogen in the soils. and oceans . in wetlands. and soils of the coniferous forest .  Natural phenomena. etc. Due to such emissions of the gases the area of vegetation was completely cleared and had also caused irritation to eyes and lungs of the people living there around the volcanoes . . Acid producing gases are also produced biologically on land.Emission of chemicals leading to acidification • The factor effecting the emission of gases like the natural phenomena. acidic deposits in the glacier.

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factories.  Before there was short funnel on the top of the factories that caused more problems to people but later on even after the long funnels invented the gases emitted would not effect the people but had a big impact on the atmosphere. generators. This principle cause of acid rain is S and N compounds from human resources such as electricity. and motor vehicles . Coal power plants also result in acid gases emission into the atmosphere.  The gases can be carried 100’s of km in the atmosphere before they are converted to acid gases. .

vegetation.• The acid rain has an adverse affect on population. animal life. etc.  . Thus these rains causes many problems to the population. Since the harmful substance that falls out in the form of droplet causes problems like skin infection. Human population-the acid rain has a great effect on the population. aquatic life. nitrogen dioxide. that are very disfavored to the humanity besides this it also includes carbon monoxide gas the emitted through the funnels of the factories . it first of all destroys the environmental condition in which a human can exist by surrounding the atmosphere with the harmful gases like sulfur oxide. respiration problems.

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These rains also have an effect on the plants . These rains destroys the materials that are essentials required for the growth of the plants that are present in the soil so because of this the roots of the plants get entirely damaged resulting in the death of the plants besides this the harmful gases destroys the chlorophyll tissues present on the leaves due to which the photo synthesis takes place. Due to this reason the vegetation can survive at all and their numbers are reduced and destroyed completely. .

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•Besides this the will find it difficult to find a home to survive because the parts forest gets destroyed due the harmful substances that falls on them . •The drops of the acid that falls on the surface of the surface of the rivers. ponds. etc where the aquatic creatures survive are made less efficient to the intake of the intake of oxygen level besides this it completely cokes out the breathing of the fishes and causes them to die and float on the surface of the water.•The rains react more than animal life to the aquatic creatures. •The animals try to pre vent themselves but at the time when they become hungry the herbivorous eat the plants that has been effected by the acid rains and causes them to die then the process of the food chain goes on due to which causes the death of the animals. lakes.