Advertising Media Selection

Chapter – 8 (Eight) Lecturer – Md Shahedur Rahman

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If a tree falls in the forest, and no one is present, does it make a sound ? A Media Strategy is the processes of analyzing and choosing media for an advertising and promotions campaign.

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9 out of 200 magazines 3 radio stations Fewer than 8 television channels

Finding right places to speak to potential customers is a big challenge.

Media Planning

Focus on Consumer Behavior . Creates plans that reflect the consumer‟s (or business‟s) purchasing process. Influence consumers in the marketplace .

Media Planners

Formulates a media program stating where and when to place advertisements. Work closely with creative's, account executives, agencies and media buyers. Select which media will be used.

Conduct research to help match the product with market and media.

Media Buyers

Buy the space and negotiate rates, times, and schedules for the ads.

Stay in constant contact with media sales representatives.
Got knowledge schedules. about rates and

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Watch for special deal in media. Larger agencies have greater bargaining power, but not always true.

Effectiveness of Advertisement

Quality media choices (the right ones ) made by each agency. Creativity Financial Stewardship ( „Bang‟ for your advertising buck ). Agency culture and track record.

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Computer systems to analyze data.
Relationships between the agency and the medium‟s sales representative.

Advertising Objectives
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Reach Frequency Opportunity to see (OTS) Gross rating point Cost per rating point Cost Continuity Impressions


Number of people or households that will be exposed to an advertising schedule at least once over a specified period of time (usually 4 weeks). A person who sees the ad twice does not get counted twice, but only once.


Denotes the number of times someone sees the ad Average frequency refers to the average number of times a person or household is exposed to a schedule. How many times did the person see the add during the campaign?

Opportunity To See (OTS)

The cumulative exposure achieved in a given period of time If a company places two ads on a television show that is televised weekly, then during a 4 week periods there are 8 OTS. (4 shows X 2 Ads per show)

Gross Rating Points (GRP)

Measures the size of an audience reached by a specific media vehicle or schedule. It is the product of the percentage of the target audience reached by an advertisement, times the frequency they see it in a given campaign.

For example, a TV advertisement that is aired 5 times reaching 50% of the target audience, it would have 250 (GRP = 5 × 50%) i.e., GRPs = frequency × % reach.

Determining Relative Cost of Media - CPM

Cost per thousand (CPM)
CPM = Cost to Advertise Circulation X 1,000

Calculating CPM Based on the TA

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Ratings are a measure of Reach 110 million (MM) television households in the U.S., approximately equivalent to the total # of households in U.S. Neilsen captures ratings data through Peoplemeters, diaries, surveys, etc. and publishes this data 1 Rating Point = 1% of television households exposed to program = 110 MM x .01 = 1.10 million households exposed (roughly a million)

Example: 10 million households watch “Sherlock”. Sherlock‟s rating is 10 MM / 110 MM = 9 points
Caveat: Rating % is always higher than % who viewed advertising

Nielsen’s People Meter

Determining Relative Cost of Media - CPP

Cost per rating point (CPP) CPP =
Cost of Advertising Program Rating

Media Schedule

Scheduling and Timing – These specify how media options are scheduled over time. Among the strategy alternatives are

Flighting - periods of total inactivity
Continuous – advertising spread evenly through time

Pulsing – a continuous base augmented by intermittent bursts of heavy advertising

Scheduling and Timing







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The total exposures of the audience to an advertisment It doesn't take into consideration what percentage of the total may or may not see the advertisement.

Three exposure Hypothesis
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Developed by Hebert Krugman Single exposure is not enough to remember. How many times a person must be exposed to an add before it has impact. Some advertisers think three exposures are not enough Depend on your objective. E.g. Brand awareness is easier than building brand image.

Effective Frequency vs. Effective Reach

Effective frequency refers to the number of times a target audience must be exposed to a message to achieve a particular objective.

Effective Reach is the percentage of an audience that must be exposed to a particular message to achieve a specific objective.

Media Class Decisions

Decision – allocating the budget over various media, is one that is made on both quantitative and qualitative criteria. Radio is suitable for reaching business commuters. Television is seen as a mass medium. Magazines and direct mails are better for well defined target segments

Media Class Decisions

Television with both audio and visual – can make an impact that simply is not possible in other media.

For other ads, when emotional or image advertising is needed, the impact created using print media is hard to match. Outdoor and TV is not well suited for high factual content.
Magazines provide better color reproduction over newspaper. Radio can involve the listener by getting him or her to use imagination to visualize stimuli.

Media Class Decisions

Ads in TV and magazines take long lead times. Radio and newspapers are more flexible in this matter – and they also cost less When information needs to be transmitted rapidly to the target market, broadcast media (TV, radio) and newspapers will reach their targets almost immediately (called a fast cume) while magazines or direct mails may take much longer (called a slow cume)

Weekday Television Dayparts
Morning Daytime Early Fringe 7:00-9:00 a.m. 9:00 a.m.-4:30 p.m. 4:30 p.m.-7:30 p.m.

Prime-Time Access Prime Time
Late News Late Fringe

7:30 p.m.-8:00 p.m. 8:00 p.m.-11:00 p.m.
11:00-11:30 p.m. 11:30-1:00 a.m.

Target Audience
Population excluding target market Target market

Media coverage
Media overexposure

Target Market Proportion

Full Market Coverage

Partial Market Coverage

Coverage Exceeding Market

A. Reach of One Program B. Reach of Two Programs

C. Duplicated Reach of Both

D. Unduplicated Reach of Both

Creativity in Media Planning

It‟s not a boring job of crunching numbers alone. Timing and placement of ads can help clients save bundles, and create a tremendous effect on the ad performance.

How you will select Media when its Business to Business ? How you will select media when you will enter into International Markets? What is Guerilla Marketing ? What is Ambient Marketing ?

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