Unit III- Structural characteristics

of bacteria

• Bacteria are microscopic, unicellular, Prokaryotic organisms. • Ehrenberg- Bacterium • Bacteria are widely distributed. It found in soil, air, water, and living bodies. • Some bacteria cause diseases for animals and plants. • Some bacteria live in our bodies as normal flora which harmless. • Normal Flora • Pathogens


Major Features of Bacteria
• • • • • • • • • • • • Unicellular , Some as colonies Prokaryotic Form- Rods, spheres, spirals/filaments Cell – Cell envelope- capsule- cell wall – plasma membrane. Nuclear material – Nucleoid, Extra chromosomal DNA– Plasmid Cell organelles – ribosomes, mesosomes Appendages: Flagella, pili. Gram positive/gram negative Nutrition Binary fission Endospores

• Only two types of cells are produced by all living organisms on earth. • Prokaryotes (pro. or primitive nucleus) do not have a membrane bound nucleus
– eubacteria (true bacteria) – archaebacteria (ancient bacteria)

• Eukaryotes (eu, or true nucleus) have a membrane bound nucleus
– – – – – Algae fungi protozoa plants animals

10 microtubules in 9+2 pattern - + .1996) Character Organisation of Genetic material: True Membrane DNA Complex with Histone Number of Chromosomes Introns in genes Nucleolus Mitosis Genetic Recombination Mitochondria Chloroplast Plasma Membrane with Sterol Prokaryotes Eukaryotes One(besides plasmids) Rare Unidirectional transfer of DNA Absent except mycoplasma&methanotrops + + More than one present Present + + Meiosis and Fusion of gametes + + + Flagella Endoplasmic Reticulum Sub-Microscopic .one fibre Microscopic.Comparison of prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells (based on Prescott.

lack peptidoglycon 70S 80 s Except in Mitochondria and Chloroplast + + + Lysosomes Microtubules Cytoskeleton - .Comparison of prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells (based on Prescott.1996) Character Golgi Appratus Cell Walls Except Mycoplasma and archeobacteria Simpler Organelles Ribosomes Prokaryotes Complex with peptidoglycom Eukaryotes + Simple.

Prokaryotes .

Size.0 µm in diameter) • Surface area/volume ratio Diameter of sphere µm 1 µm 1. µm-1 6 0.5 t0 1.1X10 6 Volume µm3 Surface Area/Volume. µ 2m 3.006 0.2X108 .52 5.000 µm Surface Area.shape and arrangement of bacterial cells • Small ( Approximately 0.1 3.

5-4 0.7 µm Pseudomonas – 0.8 2-5 1-8 0.8 Size . 2-3 µm length Micrococci – about 5 µm Bacteria Clostridium botulium Clostridium tetani Coyrnebacterium diptheriae Mycobacterium tuberculosis Salmonella typhii Streptococcus peumoniae Staphylococcus sp.5X0.1 to 60X6 µm in size Bacilli .25 0. Diseases Food poisoning Tetanus Diphtheria Tuberculosis Typhoid Pneumonia Boils Length(µm ) 3.7 µm diameter.• • • • Bacteria – 0.4 – 0.5-4 1.4-0.

Shape ? bacillus spirillum coccus coccus bacillus spirillum .

Cocci Straight rods/helically curved rods.Shape and arrangement • • • • Shape –Rigid cell wall Spherical.Bacilli/Spirilla Pleomorphic – Arthrobacter .

Ex: Streptococcus Ex: Lactobacillus Ex: Spirillium .

Streptococci Cubical groups – Sarcinae • • • • Rod-Shaped Bacilli More oval .Morphology of Microbial Cells • Shape: • • • • • • Spherical or Ovoid Single cells –Micrococci Pairs .Diplococci Cluster – Staphyloccocci Chains .Coccobacilli Chain – Streptobacilli • • • • Spiral Rigid.Spirilla Flexible – Spirochaetes Curved – Vibiro .

Arrangement • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Coccus forms: Diplococcus Strepto coccus Tetracocci Straphylococci Sarcinae Forms of Bacillus: Monobacillus Diplobacillus Streptobacillus Coccobacillus Forms of Spirilli: Vibroid Helical Other forms: Pleuromorphic Trichomes Palaside Hyphae .

between the DNA and the membrane • where all metabolic reactions occur • especially protein synthesis. which occurs on the ribosomes • Bacteria also often have these features: – cell wall • resists osmotic pressure – flagella • movement – pili • attachment – capsule • protection and biofilms .Structure of Bacteria • All cells have 3 main components: – DNA (‘nucleoid”) • genetic instructions – surrounding membrane (“cytoplasmic membrane”) • limits access to the cell’s interior – cytoplasm.

Structure of Bacterial Cell • • • • Capsule: Extracellular polymeric substances –capsule/glycocalyx – envelope-detected by negative staining. Slime Layer Sheath .gelatinous polymer Microcapsule Composed of Polysaccharides/polypeptide – homopolysaccharides heteropolysaccharides.

Streptococcus mutants –dental caries –secretion of water-insoluble capsular glucan. If capsules –composed of electrical charge.Functions of Capsule • • • • • • • • Protection against temporary drying by binding water molecules prevent the attachment of Bacteriophages Protects bacterial cells against desiccation. . maintains viscosity and inhibits the movement of nutrients from the bacterial cells Survive in natural Environment Antiphagocytic -Inhibit engulfment of pathogenic bacteria by WBCs-contribute to invasive or infective ability-virulence Source of energy Attachment of Bacteria to surfaces – eg.uronic acid – promote stability of bacterial suspension –preventing the cells from aggregating and settling outbecause cells having similar charged surface surfaces tend to repel one another.

Eg. Stella and Ancalomicrobium. Increases surface area –absorption of nutritients –advantageous in dilute environments – end of prostheca form new cell (bud).adhesive substancesaids in attachment stalks : Gallionella or planctomyces-aids in attachment of the cells to surfaces • • .Prosthecae and stalks • Prosthecae : Semi rigid extension of cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane – diameter less than that of a cell. Caulobacter.aerobic – fresh and marine.

Aquaspirillum serpens Cepalotrichus .cholerae Lophotricus . • Number and positions vary Monotrichous .helical appendages protroude/emerging from cell wall –motility.02 µm diameter – polar/lateral .thinner than eukaryotes -0.Structure of Bacterial Cell • Flagella :Hair like.V.Lactobacillus .Spirillum Amphitrichous .01 to 0.Pseudomonas Peritrichous – Proteus vulgaris Atrichous .

B. D.Flagellar arrangements A. E. Monotrichous Lophotrichous Amphitrichous Peritrichous Atrichous . C.

Monotrichous Lophotrichous Amphitrichous Peritrichous 22 .

Hook Helical filament .Structure of Flagella Basal Body.Associated with cytoplasmic membrane and cell wall.

24 .

Distinct change in direction Flagella Movement Spirocheatial movement Gliding movement . Rotation –clockwise/anticlockwise Capacity to alter both direction of rotation/speed.Functions of flagella • • • • • • • • Bacterial Motility Deflagellation –renders the motile cells immobile.

• • • • • Swimming motility without flagella Gliding motility Bacterial Chemotaxis Phototaxis Magnetotaxis .

Eukaryotic cells – lack pili Plili – Governed – genetically by plasmid-3-5 Fimbriae-1000-Gram positive bacteria – Cornebacterium renale (i) Classes of Pili: Common pili and sex pili Ottow 1975 -6 groups (ii) Structure: Appendages originate from cytoplasm 100% protein – fimbrlin/pilin-163 amino acids –m.000 daltons Sex pili.helical tubules-repeating protein units-filamentous structure sex factors – F factor.Enterobacteriaceae. 16. Col I. R Receptor sites .w.pseudomondaceae and caulobacter.g.Pili / Fimbriae • • • • • • • • • • • • • Pile and Fimbriae.Hair like appendages-Gram negative bacteria e.

eptithelial cells etc. Fimbriae – affect metabolic activity Phage receptor Transfer of genetic material -Sex pili: Conjugation tube .leucocytes.Functions of Pili/Fimbriae • • • • • • Fimbriae – adhesive propertiesFimbriae agglutinate the blood cells such as erythrocytes.. Fimbriae-Antigenic properties – act as thermoliable nonspecefic agglutinogen.

The Cell wall • • • Rigid & complex – beneath capsule – external to the plasma membrane. Responsible for characteristic shape. Support for the attachment of flagella Rescues the cells from antibodies and harmful chemicals. Protects plasma membrane-other cytoplasmic inclusions from adverse environment. • • • . Protects bacterial cell from bursting when the osmotic pressure of cytoplasm is higher than that of out side of cell wall.

similar-gram negative archaeobacteria-chemical composition of cell wall of archaeobacteria differs from eubacteria. Cell wall contributes a significant portion of the dry weight of the cell.The Cell wall • Cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria is comparatively thinner than that of gram positive bacteria. • • . Essential for growth and divisions.

D-alanine. • Methanobacterium –pseudomurein. glycoproteins or polysaccharides. and diaminoacid. N-acetyl acetyl muramic acid. • Arecheobacteria –proteins. .Lalanine.shaped macromolecule • Polymer of N-acetyl glucosamine. D-glutamate.Structure and chemical composition • Peptidoglycon –sometimes murein-insoluble-porous-cross-linked • Bag.

Structure and Chemical Composition • Peptidoglycon –alternating monosaccharide units of Nacetyl glucosamine(NAG) and N-acetyl muramic acid(NAM).Bacterial antigens . • A tetrapeptide –attached to N-acetyl muramic acid(NAM). mucopeptides. protein. • Two units linked byβ1. • Peptidoglycon cross linked. teichoic acids. • The interstices –lipids. • Walls .pentapeptide links the tetrapeptides of adjacent peptidoglycons. 4 linkages.

porous. • Walls of Archaeobacteria • Walls of Gram-Positive bacteria • Walls of Gram-negative Eubacteria • Molecular surface Arrays . cross-linked polymer.Structure and Chemical Composition • Peptidoglycon/Murein -Insoluble.

50% or more dry weight. • Little lipid • Mycobacterium (mycolic acid) and Corynebacterium.polysaccharides.Teichoic acidscovalently linked to peptidoglycon –protect from thermal injury.cross linked with peptidoglycon.Rich in lipids . Streptococcus pyogenes. • Staphylococcus aureus & Streptococcus faecalis.Walls of gram positive and negative bacteria • • • • Gram – Positive: Greater amount of peptidoglycon.

Gram positive bacteria .

impermeable barrier. Outer membrane-anchored to the underlying peptidoglycon –Braun’s lipoprotein.some allow certain essential large molecules to penetrate eg vitamin B12-many serve as receptors-attachment bacteriophages and bacteriocins.Walls of gram positive and negative bacteria • • • • • • • • • • Gram – Negative More complex.Bilayered. Rich in lipids. Porins are sepcific. .monosaccharides. Outer membrane. Channels in special proteins. Allow smaller molecules.Porins. peptides. aminoacids – pass across. Composed of three covalently linked parts.proteins and lipopolysaccharide (LPS).nucleiosides.Phospholipids.Lipid A.oligosacharides. Membrane.surrounds a thin underlying layer of peptidoglycan. Core polysaccharide and O antigen.Toxicendotoxin.

Gram negative bacteria .


Gram Positives and Gram Negatives: Key Differences .

may cause severe gastrointestinal problems .causes syphilis Escherichia coli .causes strep throat Staphylococcus aureus .causes skin infections and may be responsible for boils Examples of Gram Negative Bacteria: Treponema pallidum .Gram Positives and Gram Negatives Examples of Gram positive Bacteria: Streptococcus pyogenes .

• Protection function –gram negative bacteria –predatory bacteriabdellovibros .Molecular surface Arrays • Both gram positive and negative is covered –mosaic layer of protein subunits.

Difference between cell walls of GramPositive and Gram-negative bacteria Character Gram’s Stain Gram-Positive Retain crystal violet and appear dark violet Gram-Negative Pass crystal violet and counter stained by safranine -appear red. Present Thin-single layer High Outer membrane Peptidoglycon Lipids and Proteins Absent Several layers thick Low Lipopolysaccharides Teichoic acid Periplasmic Space Flagella Absent Mostly present Absent Contains 2 rings in basal body High Absent present Contains 4 rings in basal body .

Functions of cell wall • • • • Structural integrity Cell envelope acts as barrier Matrix proteins acts as receptor sites O-antigen.determines antigenic specificity of -negative bacteria .

Structures Internal to the cell wall • • • • • • • • Cytoplasmic membrane Protoplasts Spheroplasts Membranous Intrusions and Intracellular membrane Systems. DNA and fluid portion. Cytoplasmic inclusions and vacuoles – volutin/ metachromatic granules Nuclear Material Plasmid .Ribosomes. Cytoplasm.

Cytoplasmic membrane /plasma membrane • 7. .Phospholipids and proteins-phospholipds bilayered – integral proteins.5 nm thick .peripheral proteins • Lipid matrix has fluidity • Hydrophobic barrier-contains enzymes involved in respiratory metabolism – synthesis of cell wall and capsular components.important functional structure.

energy production centre –phosporylation – specific site for attachment of chromosome – Replication.Fluid mosaic model phospholipid Barrier to lysozyme Endotoxin O antigens Permeable to small molecules Porins. .receptors. Plasma membrane (inner): Lipid bilayer-fluid mosaic structure Selective permeable –permease.Cytoplasmic membrane /plasma membrane • • • • • • • • • • Outer plasma Membrane: Gram – negative bacteria .transport system.

teichoic acids. polysaccharides. lipopolysaccharides &phospholipids.Functions of plasma membrane • Transport by permease • Enzyme Biosynthetic pathways-synthesize different componentspeptidoglycon. • Attachment site-bacterial chromosome and plasmid • Respiratory activity • Permeability barrier • Selective permeability .

polyribosomes Mesosomes – intracytoplasmic membranous structures –central mesosomes and peripheral mesosomes. . . Functions: helps in septum formation DNA replication distribution of DNA top daughter cells Transport of exocellular enzymes-pencillinase Link between plasma membrane and nuclear material Chromatophores: Photosynthetic bacteria-pigment bearing – photosyntheis. 70S.Cytoplasm • • • • • • • • • • Colloidal No streaming movement Ribosomes – Protein synthesis .

aerobic bacteria – Poly – βhydroxybutyrate-carbon and energy reserve-glycogen-gas vacuoles • Magnetosomes • Nucleoid • Plasmid .• Cytoplasmic inclusions and vocules: • Volutin granules-metachromatic granules .

Recombination: Conjugation Transformation Transduction .Bacterial Reproduction: • • • • • • • • • Binary fission Budding Fragmentation Endospore formation Conidiospore.

.Spores and Cysts • • • • Endospores Exospores Conidipsores and Sprangiospores Cysts.

Nutritional Types • • • • • • • • • • Autotrops Photoautrophs and chemoautotrophs Heterotrophs: Parasitic Saprophytic Symbiotic Photoheterotropic Chemoheterotropic Bacterial Respiration Aerobic. anaerobic and facultative .