Surge Arrestors

Types of voltage surges  Voltage surges have different charactersitics Atmospheric (lightning) Switching 2 .

etc.03 to 1 second temporary voltage surge  A voltage surge is characterised by it’s rise time and duration 3 .Types of voltage surges Transient overvoltages: • atmospheric  several MHz. 0. motors.05 to 10 ms) Temporary overvoltages: • 50Hz with a duration of 0. fuses. 1 to 100 s) • switching (circuit breaker.)  (100KHz to 1MHz.

Standardised impulse waves  Electrical equipment is tested to standard impulse voltages to determine withstand level Standardised voltage wave 1.2 / 50µs Standardised current wave 8 / 20µs 4 .

Impulse withstand voltages  All electrical equipment has an impulse withstand voltage 5 .

Parallel protection device This is connected in parallel with the load to be protected. MOVs. 6 . gas discharge tubes. Surge arrestor/diverter most often used. This type eliminates high frequency transient voltage surges such as lightining impulses (MHz). This type can eliminate network (temporary) or transient voltage surges (50-60-400Hz to 200kHz). network conditioners and static UPS. zener diodes. wave absorbers. Carbon spark gaps.Surge protection devices Serial protection device This is connected in series with the load to be protected. transformers. Filters.

Surge arrestors  The voltage/current characteristic of the ideal surge protection device • Leakage current • Residual voltage • Energy dissipation 0  low  high  The voltage/current characteristic of the metal oxide varistor • Leakage current • Residual voltage • Energy dissipation  low  low  high 7 .

MOV surge arrestor  Electrical characteristics of low voltage MOV surge arrestor  Uc: permanent operating full withstand voltage (MOV rating) leakage current typically < 1 mA  Ic :  Up: protection level (residual voltage):1 kV . This is the peak value of the 8 / 20 µs wave current that can flow through the surge arrester without any damage (20 shocks) this is the peak value of the 8 / 20 µs wave current that a surge arrester can withstand (1shock)  In:  Imax: Note: Imax or In kA not to be confused with rms kA fault rating 8 .5kV rated discharge current.2.

MOV surge arrestor  Electrical characteristics of low voltage MOV surge arrestor Auxiliary contact for remote indication Thermal disconnector indicator flag 9 .

and the network voltage is restored. the resistance of the surge arrestor rises to it’s initial high value. The type of surge arrestor must match the type of protection required.  Vres  ()  R high R low  flash U (U) 10 . If a surge. the surge arrestor has a very high resistance (effectively an open circuit). depending on the magnitude and frequency of the surge. and the equipment/ installation to be protected. appears on the network. Once the discharge energy has dissipated. the surge arrestor’s resistance drops to a very low value (effectively a short circuit) The surge arrestor will conduct the discharge current to earth whilst maintain the voltage (residual) at or below the protection level. greater than the flashover (trigger) voltage of the surge arrestor.MOV surge arrestor (diverter)  Operating principle  During normal operating conditions.

11 . Dangerous to sensitive equipment: damage to electronic components.Types of voltage surges  Voltage surges also occur in two different modes Differential mode Differential mode voltage surges circulate between phase to phase or phase to neutral conductors Common mode Common mode voltage surges occur between the live conductors and earth:phase to earth or neutral to earth Dangerous for equipment which have an earthed frame: dielectric breakdown.

Common / differential mode protection Common mode protection 12 .MOV surge arrestor  The surge arrestor is made up a protection element (MOV) and a thermal disconnector which deteriorates with energy dissipation and eventually ruptures.

(50cm rule)  Upstream protection/isolation may be provided by MCBs or fuses (follow manufacturer’s recommendations. if RCD is time delayed.Installation guidelines L1 L2 L3 N load surge arrestor MEN link L1 L2 L3 N Main neutral link Main earth bar  AS4070 recommends 6mm2 cables connections (as straight as possible)  Installation as close to origin as possible  Connected between supply side or load side of main switch and: .Earth bar. Total length of active and earth should not exceed 1m.Neutral bar if installed upstream of MEN link . if installed downstream of MEN link  Keep connecting leads as short as possible. 13 .  May be connected to load side of RCD.

1P+N and 3P+N devices connected downstream of MEN link (Neutral and Earth conductors are separate). 14 .Installation guidelines 1P and 3P devices connected upstream of MEN link (Neutral and Earth conductors are combined).