Unit 2: Building Materials

The illustration shown on the right represents the essential elements of a modern Building.

1.Foundations: This is a structure ( made, mainly, of cement, iron and gravel ) that transfers loads to the earth. The primary design concerns are settlement and bearing capacity

1.Foundations:
A foundation is always wider than the element (e.g. wall or column) which it is supporting. This is so that the load is spread over a greater area.

1.Foundations:

Strip foundation: the lower portion of the strip is stretched (tension) as the foundation bends under loading. Placing steel reinforcement in the foundation counteracts this and ensures the foundation remains stable.

2.Structure
Is comprised of pillars, beams and tie-beams made of reinforced concrete or iron. The structural system of every house is required to support and transmit various loads. These Loads can be classed as static or dynamic.

2.Structure
Static Loads: Loads that are applied slowly to a structure and do not change quickly. Examples of static loads include: Loads associated with the building weight and any elements permanently attached to it

Dynamic Loads. Loads that are applied suddenly to a structure, often with rapid changes in magnitude and point of application. Examples of dynamic loads include: wind loads and earthquake loads

3.Floors and ceiling
The primary functions of the floor are to support the imposed loads and to provide a level surface for the activities that are carried out in the home.

3.Floors and ceiling. Hollow tile are placed between two tie-beams, later it is covered by a layer of concrete. Floors are finished with floor tiles or floorboard.

4.Exteriors walls These are usually made by two brick walls and an insulator layer ( to avoid the heat loss).

4.Exteriors walls
The primary functions of the external walls of a house are to support the loads generated ( only in case of a no-columns structure ) and to create a comfortable living space.

4.Exteriors walls
The most common method used for housing is the cavity construction. This involves building a wall that consists of two separate walls, an inner wall and an outer wall, with a small gap ( called a cavity ) between them and another bigger gap for an insulator.

5.Windows These provide a visual link between internal space and the outside world. They are very important to the mental health of the people in the house. A small tiebeam is placed above the window to bear the load of all bricks situated over the window frame.

5.Windows
Double-glazing is designed to reduce the amount of heat lost through the glass, while weather stripping is designed to reduce the amount of heat lost due to air infiltration (draughts). Double-glazing can significantly reduce the amount of heat lost through a typical window.

6. Roof. Its functions are to protect a building from the weather and to retain the heat generated inside. It is comprised of a wood or iron structure, a thermal material such as fiberglass and the last layer, the tiles or slates.

6. Roof
Roofs must be designed to have weather resistance. Every roof in the world is sloped to some extent. Even socalled flat roofs are slightly sloped. The reason we slope roofs is to dispel rainwater.

7.Internal walls. The primary function of internal wall is to divide the overall space within the house into smaller spaces. They are made of brick, wood or plaster.

Each one of every part in the building has its own functions and a good design is crucial.

Construction Materials. Ceramics, Glass and reinforced concrete
Ceramics:
All types of bricks used in construction are ceramic materials that are modelled and dried by the action of heat.

In order to get a brick, clay is mixed with additives that give the ceramic brick different properties. An essential element is feldspar. Feldspar improves the toughness, strength, and durability of the ceramic brick.

Glass:
The optical and physical properties of glass make it suitable for construction applications such as flat glass for windows, thermal insulators (glass wool which fills up the space between two walls ) internal glazed partitions, etc

Reinforced concrete:

It is concrete in which reinforcement bars (iron bars ) have been incorporated to strengthen the material. Remember that concrete is good at compression efforts but bad at tension efforts. Iron has a good tension efforts value so adding iron to concrete will lead to a material good at both compression and tension.

Reinforced concrete:

Dictionary:
Consolidation: When stress is applied to a soil that causes the soil particles to pack together more tightly, therefore reducing its volume. Process by which soils decrease in volume. Gravel: small stones and pebbles (very small, rounded stone), or a mixture of these with sand Bearing Capacity: is the capacity of soil to support the loads applied to the ground. Hollow tile: A hollow building block of concrete or Terra cotta used for making exterior walls, floors or roofs. Also known as hollow block Concrete: is a construction material composed of cement, sand, water as well as other cement like materials. Settlement: is defined as downward movement of the soil, or any structure on it, as a result of soil consolidation, usually caused by the load applied by the structure. Clay: a natural earthy material that is plastic when wet, consisting essentially of hydrated silicates of aluminum: used for making bricks, pottery, etc

Dictionary:
Failure: an act or instance of failing or proving unsuccessful; lack of success. Moisture: wetness caused by water Masonry: work constructed by a mason, stonework or brickwork Mason: a person whose trade is building with units of various construction products, such as stones, bricks, or tiles, usually with the use of mortar or cement as a bonding agent. Patterned: a model or form of metal, used for giving the bar an extra adhesion to the concrete. Rot: to deteriorate, disintegrate, fall, or become weak due to decay Slates: 1. A piece of this rock cut for use as roofing. 2. A writing tablet made of a similar material. Slenderness: thin or slight Tiles: a thin slab or bent piece of baked clay, sometimes painted or glazed, used for various purposes, such as to form one of the units of a roof covering or floor (other shape )

Activity

A. In the picture above, identify each component of structure in the next square. Also, comment something about that part, as their characteristics, properties, etc.

Structure Foundations Exterior Walls Windows Internal Walls Roof Floor and ceiling

Activity
B. Complete the sentences with the following words : Loads, Roof, Iron, heat, Gravel, cold, good building, smaller, Structure, Wall, foundation, Clay, internal wall, Plaster

1. A _________________is the part of a structure that transfers the ______from the structure to the ground. 2. _________ = Its functions are to protect a building from the weather and to retain the heat generated inside. 3. The primary function of __________________is to divide the overall space within the house into ___________spaces. 4. ____________= small stones and pebbles. 5. ______________ a composition, such as one made of lime or gypsum and sand and water, applied in a pasty form to walls, ceilings, etc. 6. ______________a natural earthy material that is plastic when wet, consisting essentially of hydrated silicates of aluminum: used for making bricks, pottery, etc 7. The External_________ are usually made by two brick walls and an insulator layer. 8. A _____________ is comprised of pillars, beams and tie-beams made of reinforced concrete or iron. 9. __________ is a material very useful in buildings. 10. The buildings are built to provide _________in winter and ________in summer. 11. A ______________has a good structure and foundation to avoid static problems

Activity
C. True or False. Correct the sentence. The function of a foundation on a building can be summarized as follow: To transmit all building load to the first floor. To limit settlement and avoid subsidence. To provide a level bed on which to build. To fix nearly the structure to the ground.