EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION

MEASUREMENT
EVALUATION

ASSESSMENT

MEASUREMENT  An evaluation expressed in quantitative terms. It is the numeric description of an event or characteristics. It tells how much, how often, or how well by providing scores, ranks or rating.

MEASUREMENT

The purpose of which is to enable comparisons, assessments, judgments, and evaluation through various mathematical computations and manipulations.

procedures or objects. where things may include programs. products. .EVALUATION A disciplined inquiry to determine the worth or merit of things.

EVALUATION In the educational setting. . evaluation is defined as decision making about students performance and about appropriate teaching strategies.

can perform certain tasks.ASSESSMENT It is a general term that is used to encompass everything a teacher does to ascertain the level at which students have mastered the subject matter. or exhibit certain behaviors. .

ASSESSMENT It includes the collection. analysis. and interpretation of various kinds of information useful for educational decisions. .

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND .

Galileo . we must measure what is measurable and make measurable what is not measurable” .“for the sake of knowledge.

Early Antecedents Modern Foundations The Great Schools The Great Schools Influence Contemporary Explorations .

E) Ming Dynasty (1368 .E .E) .1644 C.C.  Keju System – oral/written examination given every three years to help determine work evaluations and promotion decisions.220 C. Han Dynasty (206 B.Early Antecedents  Royal Egyptian Cubit – used for physical measurement.

Test content: civil law military affairs agriculture revenue geography .Han Dynasty Test batteries – the use two or more tests in conjunction.

.Ming Dynasty National Multistage Testing Program: flow of testing: local > provincial > regional > national type of test: essays Only those who passed the final set of tests were eligible for public office.

. Tests are specifically designed to measure these individual differences in ability and personality among people.Modern Foundations Individual Differences: No two people are exactly alike in ability and typical behavior.

Terman and Spearman .Modern Foundations  Jean Martin Charcot Influenced Freud and Binet  Charles Darwin Influenced Galton  Sir Francis Galton Influenced by: Darwin. Pearson. and Gauss Influenced Cattell. LaPlace.

 Wilhelm Wundt Father of Experimental Psychology and Founder of Modern Psychology  James McKeen Cattell  Clark Wissler .The Great Schools  Hermann Ebbinghaus develop the first scientific approach in studying memory.

and founder of the Science Press (1923) .James McKeen Cattell  Psychometric Investigation  co-editor of The Psychological Review (1894-1903). editor and publisher of the Journal of Science (1894-1944 )  founder of the Psychological Corporation (1921).

and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.James McKeen Cattell  Involvement in the American Psychological Association. the American Association of University Professors. .

Clark Wissler Applied correlation factor to empirically disprove Cattell's method of intelligence testing .

movement time.Cattell’s intelligence test  to measure the mental ability of students by measuring their reaction time. and other simple mental and sensory processes .

The Great Schools Influence  Alfred Binet  William Stern  Theodore Simon  Lewis Madison Terman  Florence Goodenough  Henry Herbert Goddard .

Bingham Robert Mearns Yerkes Charles Spearman Karl Pearson .The Great School Influence Edward Thorndike Walter V.

Alfred Binet  Binet-Simon Scale – The scale consisted of 30 task of increasing complexity. .  Some of the simplest test items assessed whether or not a child could follow a lighted match with his eyes or shake hands with the examiner.

repeat simple sentences. fork or mama.Alfred Binet  Slightly harder tasks required children to point to various named body parts. . and to define words like house. repeat back a series of 3 digits.

river and fortune." .Alfred Binet  More difficult test items required children to state the difference between pairs of things. reproduce drawings from memory or to construct sentences from three given words such as "Paris.

Alfred Binet  The hardest test items included asking children to repeat back 7 random digits. He has received in turn a doctor. a lawyer. and then a priest. find three rhymes for the French word obéisance and to answer questions such as "My neighbor has been receiving strange visitors. What is taking place?" .

and named this ratio the intelligence quotient. . He took the mental age and divided it by the chronological age.William Stern  Stern looked at individual test scores as particular "mental ages" which could then be compared to actual "chronological ages" to determine a degree of advancement.

" soon became known as the "Stanford-Binet". . and was by far the best available individual intelligence test.Lewis Madison Terman  Terman published a revised and perfected Binet-Simon scale for American populations. This "Stanford Revision of the BinetSimon Scale.

.Lewis Madison Terman  The new Stanford-Binet scale. would allow for the scientific diagnosis and classification of children to be placed in special classes. bring tens of thousands of high-grade defectives under the surveillance and protection of society.

Lewis Madison Terman  reduce delinquency. and serve as a standard for research. help the schools respond to children of superior intelligence. assist in assigning children to school grades. . help determine vocational fitness.

Lewis Madison Terman IQ = Mental Age / Chronological Age X 100 .

Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test * new standards * new scoring procedures * Draw-a-Woman Test .Draw-a-Man Test (1926) .Florence Goodenough  Measurement of Intelligence by Drawing (1926). .

000 copies of the translated Binet scale and 88.Henry Herbert Goddard  Translated the Binet-Simon intelligence scale into English (1908)  Distributed 22.000 answer blanks across the United States (1908-1915) .

Henry Herbert Goddard  Established the first laboratory for the psychological study of mentally retarded persons (1910)  Helped to draft the first American law mandating special education (1911) .

known as the CAVD. arithmetic. . Thorndike During the 1920's he developed a test of intelligence that consisted of completion. and directions test. vocabulary.Edward L.

It is a group intelligence tests that could identify recruits with low intelligence and allow the Army to recognize men who were particularly well-suited for special assignments and officers' training schools. Bingham  Helped developed the Army Alpha Beta Test. .Walter V.

Charles Spearman  “First systematic psychometrician” and father of classical test theory  Pioneer of the statistical technique called factor analysis  Discovered a general factor (g) in correlations among mental tests .

Karl Pearson  Laid the foundation for the th Century Statistics: 20 * correlation * regression analysis * standard deviation * bi-serial r .

Karl Pearson * chi-square * coefficient of variation * kurtosis * normal curve * scedasticity .

Thurstone Anne Anastasi David Wechsler Cyril Burt .L.Contemporary Explorations L.

L. Thurstone Developed Multiple Factor Analysis .L.

Anne Anastasi Known as the "test guru" Extensive examination of issues related to test construction. test misuse. misinterpretation and cultural bias .

.Anne Anastasi Role of tests:  They permit a direct assessment of prerequisite intellectual skills demanded by many important tasks in our culture.

Anne Anastasi They assess availability of a relevant store of knowledge or content also prerequisite for many educational and occupational tasks. .

Anne Anastasi  They provide an indirect index of the extent to which the individual has developed effective learning strategies. . problem-solving techniques and work habits and utilized them in the past.

including two widely-used intelligence scales:  Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC. WAIS-III®. WISC-IV®. 1955. or “DQ” (1939) .David Wechsler  Developed several assessments. 1997)  Established the use of the deviation IQ. 2003)  Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS. 1949.

It has been normed for use with children aged six through sixteen years and eleven months.David Wechsler  The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition® (WISC-IV®) was published in 2003. It yields a full-scale IQ score and four index scores: .

g. block design and picture concepts). Working Memory (e. symbol search and coding).g. letter-number sequencing and digit-span) and Processing Speed (e. vocabulary and comprehension activities).g.g. matrix reasoning.David Wechsler  Verbal Comprehension (e. Perceptual Reasoning (e. . similarities.

David Wechsler Deviation IQ A technical innovation that replaced the use of mental ages in computing IQ scores. This greatly improved the utility of normative comparisons when intelligence tests are used with adult examinees. .

(WMS---III®)(Wechsler. 1945/1997)  Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scale of Intelligence™ --Third edition (WPPSI™-III) (Wechsler. 1967/2002).David Wechsler Other works:  Wechsler Memory Scale®--Third edition. .

2006) .David Wechsler  Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)(Wechsler. 1999)  Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV) (Naglieri & Wechsler.

Cyril Burt Helped to establish the Eleven-Plus testing program in Great Britain .

teaching resources.Kaplan. A. and Issues.). Thompson:U.edu/~intell Woolfolk. Retrieved [May. (Ed.indiana.A. from http://www. Human intelligence: Historical influences. Plucker. A. 2009]. R. Allyn and Bacon:MA.M. (1998). current controversies. . E. Educational Psychology. Applications. (2005). (2003). Psychological Testing: Principles. J.S.