STUDENT’S ID 082-001-041 082-009-041 082-010-041 082-013-041 082-018-041 082-023-041 082-026-041 082-031-041 082-037-041 082-046-041 NAME

082-049-041 082-066-041


leading or directing. staffing . financial resources. organizing. and controlling an organization or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. and natural resources.DEFINITION : Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources. Management comprises planning. technological resources. .

 The French word mesnagement (later ménagement) influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries. . which in turn derives from the Latin manus (hand).HISTORY:  The verb manage comes from the Italian maneggiare.

namely:       Human resource management Operations management or production management Strategic management Marketing management Financial management Information technology management responsible management information systems for .TYPES OF MANAGEMENT: Towards the end of the 20th century. business management came to consist of six separate branches.

organizing. leading/directing. often classified as planning.FUNCTION AND ROLE OF MANAGEMENT : Basic functions: Management operates through various functions.  Planning Organizing Staffing Leading/Directing Controlling/Monitoring Motivation . staffing. controlling/monitoring and Motivation.

Leading/Directing: Determining what needs to be done in a situation and getting people to do it. Staffing: Job analyzing. next week. next year. Organizing: (Implementation) making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans. Planning: Deciding what needs to happen in the future (today. over the next 5 years. employees cannot work effectively.) and generating plans for action. and hiring individuals for appropriate jobs. recruitment. etc. . because without motivation. Motivation: Motivation is also a kind of basic function of management. Controlling/Monitoring: Checking progress against plans. next month.

motivate. Informational: Roles that involve handling. Interpersonal: Used to communicate. Diagnostic: Ability to visualise most appropriate response to a situation. MANAGEMENT SKILLS : Technical: Used for specialized knowledge required for work. sharing.BASIC ROLES : Interpersonal: Roles that involve coordination and interaction with employees. mentor and delegate. Conceptual: Used to analyze complex situations. . and analyzing information. Decisional: Roles that require decision-making. Political: Used to build a power base and establish connections.

people had limited wants to satisfy. In modern times however. . Thus. Some members in your family have to work to earn and provide for the needs of the family. activities of different types are undertaken by people to earn sufficiently to fulfil their increasing wants. We require various types of goods and services to satisfy our needs and wants. industry.NATURE AND SCOPE OF BUSINESS : All of us live in families and depending on the income. Thus we find large numbers of people engaged in business. and profession. Such economic and business activities satisfy various needs and demands for goods and services. On the one hand the supply of goods and services has led to various activities. people engage in different activities which are known as economic activities. we have different standards of living. On the other hand. In ancient times. we need a large variety of goods and services to satisfy our needs and to raise our standard of living.

DIRECTION AND COMMUNICATION : The flow of communication has four district directions. They are  downward  upward  horizontal  and grapevine .

chairs to department heads. provide subordinates with data concerning their performance. Downward communication is necessary to help clarify the school’s goals. UPWARD COMMUNICATION : It also follows the hierarchical chart and transmits information from lower to higher levels in the organization. The communication can take place among different groups of sender and receivers including superintendents to assistant superintendents. deal with problem areas quickly. but it is frequently deficient. gauge organizational climate. department heads to teachers or any other combination of superior to subordinate. inform employees about educational changes impacting the school. Downward communication occurs easily. monitor decision effectiveness. provides a sense of mission. . Upward communication is necessary to provide administrators with feedback on downward communication. assist in indoctrinating new employees into the system. and provide needed information to administrators. in which people at higher levels transmit information to people at lower levels.DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION : Hierarchical systems like large school districts tend to use downward communication. describing procedures and so on.

employees build their own channels of communication. This type of communication flow does not appear or any organizational chart. Integration and coordination between units in an organization are facilitated by horizontal communication . It exists in all large organizations regardless of communication flow. The Grapevine : When the shortcoming and of the three types of organizational communication become apparent. horizontal communication furnishes emotional and social support among peers. Therefore. This horizontal communication is frequently achieved through cross functional committees or council meetings. . grapevine. This type of communication is frequently overlooked in the design of most organizations. Besides providing task coordination.Horizontal Communication : It takes place between employees at the same hierarchical levels. groups and others that tie together units horizontally and informal interpersonal communication. Grapevine coexists with the administration’s formal communication system. but it carries much of the communication in the organization. they should learn to integrate grapevine communication with formal communication.

namely budgetary and financial.BUDGETARY CONTROL : There are two types of control. Any differences (variances) are made the responsibility of key individuals who can either exercise control action or revise the original budgets. A control technique whereby actual results are compared with budgets. .

. Clearly defines areas of responsibility.     Motivates employees by participating in the setting of budgets. Economises management time by using the management by exception principle. Requires managers of budget centres to be made responsible for the achievement of budget targets for the operations under their personal control. Improves the allocation of scarce resources. Enables remedial action to be taken as variances emerge.ADVANTAGES OF BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL: There are a number of advantages to budgeting and budgetary control:   Promotes coordination and communication.

but not all Organizations are a variant of clustered entities . Many organizations have hierarchical structures. which are directed towards the achievement of organizational aims. First. and thus to what extent their views shape the organization’s actions. depending on their objectives.ORGANIZATION-STRUCTURE : An organizational structure consists of activities such as task allocation. Organizational structure affects organizational action in two big ways. coordination and supervision. An organization can be structured in many different ways. . workgroup and individual . The structure of an organization will determine the modes in which it operates and performs. Organizational structure allows the expressed allocation of responsibilities for different functions and processes to different entities such as the branch. it determines which individuals get to participate in which decision-making processes. It can also be considered as the viewing glass or perspective through which individuals see their organization and its environment. department. Second. it provides the foundation on which standard operating procedures and routines rest.


II. This structure is most common in smaller organizations and is best used to solve simple tasks. VI. V. the divisional structure groups each organizational function into a division. Precision. This structure can combine the best of both separate structures. Bureaucratic structures : The analogy that “the fully developed bureaucratic mechanism compares with other organizations exactly as does the machine compare with the non-mechanical modes of production. Functional structure : Employees within the functional divisions of an organization tend to perform a specialized set of tasks. None of these however has left behind the core tenets of Bureaucracy. Matrix structure : The matrix structure groups employees by both function and product. Divisional structure : Also called a "product structure". IV. Pre-bureaucratic structures : Pre-bureaucratic (entrepreneurial) structures lack standardization of tasks. Each division within a divisional structure contains all the necessary resources and functions within it. in order to take advantage of the strengths. amongst others. The structure is totally centralized. culture management and matrix management. for instance the engineering department would be staffed only with software engineers. Post-bureaucratic : The term of post bureaucratic is used in two senses in the organizational literature: one generic and one much more specific. This may include total quality management. A matrix organization frequently uses teams of employees to accomplish work. as well as make up for the weaknesses. of functional and decentralized forms. unambiguity.TYPE OF STRUCTURE : I. III. speed. .

WORK MEASUREMENT : Work measurement is the application of techniques designed to establish the time for an average worker to carry out a specified manufacturing task at a defined level of performance. It is concerned with the length of time it takes to complete a work task assigned to a specific job. .

PRINCIPLES OF PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT: All significant work activity must be measured. conduct appraisal on time. .     Unmeasured work should be minimized or eliminated. Timely corrective action is needed for effective management control. Focus on behaviors. Frequent reporting enables timely corrective action.     Performance reporting and variance analyses must be accomplished frequently. Defining performance in terms of desired results is how managers and supervisors make their work assignments operational. do not criticize employees. Outcomes provide the basis for establishing accountability for results rather than just requiring a level of effort. Desired performance outcomes must be established for all measured work.

which are meant to eliminate the adverse effects of fluctuating employment on living standards.WAGE PLAN OPERATIONAL RESEARCH : DEFINATION: Wage plan. system by which an employer ensures a minimum annual amount of employment or wages (or both) to employees who have been with the employer for a required minimum period of time. . The United States has had more experience than other countries with such plans. which appear to be affected less by fluctuations in the economy. The most successful examples have been found in the consumer goods industries.

regardless of the time taken for production (piece rate system). regardless of his output (time rate system).METHODS OF WAGE PAYMENT: There are two basic methods of Wage Payment:  First method relates to the hours the employee is at work.  . Second method relates to the production or output.

In the works of Dim . span of coaltrolis the number of rshgk of direct. In Public Administration.span of attention. It may be also said. while the world 'control' means power or authority to . .direct. habitual contacts between the chief executive of an enterprise and his principal fellow-officers". span of control refers to the number of subordinates whom an officer can effectively control. Graicunas. described by V. in psychology. Span of control is dependent upon . the word 'span' means distance between the tip of a person's thump band the little finger when stretched out. This concept is related to the principle of' Span of Attention'. personally direct. order or restrain. that the spa? Of control means. It also means the number of subordinates an officer can direct.A.SPAN OF SUPERVISION : Literally.

The term is generally used for humans but it can also be used to describe the causes for animal behavior as well. . but distinct from. motivation may be rooted in a basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure. morality. ideal. state of being. Motivation is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic. emotion. or avoiding mortality. According to various theories. This article refers to human motivation. goal.MOTIVATION : Motivation is the driving force by which humans achieve their goals. motivation should not be confused with either volition or optimism. Motivation is related to. selfishness. or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting. or it may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism. Conceptually. or a desired object.

That is why it critical when addressing motivation within the workplace that a manager assess their personnel on a person basis to know where they are personally and organizationally. Managers must know what's necessary for a person prior to they could find ways to develop the motivation of that individual. and culture and discovering their location in that group.Motivation Process: Individuals react and differently to different situations. . Motivation Factors: There are actually five key stages or ranges associated with work-related behaviors. The first work connected behavior is joining the organization in which a new employee is finding linked with the group. its practices.

.LEADERSHIP : Leadership has been described as the “process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task”. Definitions inclusive of nature of leadership have also emerged." According to Ken "SKC" Ogbonnia . Alan Keith of Genentech states that. "effective leadership is the ability to successfully integrate and maximize available resources within the internal and external environment for the attainment of organizational or societal goals. "Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen.

and  intervening actively in the group's work.  organizing subordinate activities.  teaching and coaching subordinates.  motivating others.FUNCTION OF A LEADER: The functions include:  Environmental monitoring. .

including ways of thinking . what causes them and how this causation works. . are amongst the oldest and most important questions in western philosophy. as well as presenting obstacles or constraints on living a good life.NATURE OF BEHAVIOUR : Human nature refers to the distinguishing characteristics. This is partly because human nature can be regarded as both a source of norms of conduct or ways of life. that humans tend to have naturally. The questions of what these characteristics are. feeling and acting. These questions have particularly important implications in ethics. politics and theology. and how fixed human nature is.

the mask was not used as a plot device to disguise the identity of a character. in the theatre of the ancient Latin-speaking world.PERSONALITY : "Personality" can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions. Significantly. The word "personality" originates from the Latin persona. and behaviors in various situations. which means mask. but rather was a convention employed to represent or typify that character. motivations. .

Its areas of focus include: I. .how people are unique Investigating human nature .AREAS OF FOCUS : Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and individual differences. Constructing a coherent picture of the individual and his or her major psychological processes Investigating individual differences . people are alike II.

Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity. . including problems of individuals' daily lives and the treatment of mental illness.PSYCHOLOGY OF LABOUR : Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the study of behavior and mental processes.


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