Hardware IV

Computer Graphics
(Display Technologies and Devices)

Organic LED Arrays

Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) Arrays
The display of the future? OLED are: Transparent  Flexible  Light-emitting, and quite bright (daylight visible)  Large viewing angle  Fast (< 1 microsecond off-on-off)  Can be made large or small  Available for cell phones and car stereos
August 1, 2012 1

Hardware IV

Computer Graphics

FED:

FED’s use an array of carbon nanotubes for emission of electrons

• Field Emissive Displays were once heir to CRT throne • Super-small emitters of electrons attracted to front glass • Super-fine pixel pitch (comparable to OLEDs) • High brightness, wide viewing angles, saturated color

August 1, 2012

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Hardware IV

Computer Graphics

SED (Surface-conduction Electron-emitter Display)
SED uses an emitter array based on palladium oxide

August 1, 2012

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Hardware IV

Computer Graphics

iMod:
• Interferometric Modulator uses natural reflective principles (interferometer) • Two-position pixel reflects or absorbs light • RGB stripes are used for color imaging • Initial target is handheld electronics, nearto-eye • Marketed in May 2008 for mobile displays
August 1, 2012 4

Hardware IV

Computer Graphics

EL Display
• Electroluminescent display uses a common-color phosphor emitter (blue) • Color filters (stripes) provide R, G, B imaging • Matrix of electrodes for pixel activation • Bright display, wide viewing angles • Similar to LCD with single-color backlight • Similar to plasma with emissive operation
August 1, 2012 5

Hardware IV

Computer Graphics

Electronic Paper
• • • • Portable, flexible, reusable, light-weight, non-backlit Slow for animations Wider viewing angle Used in e-books
» Video

August 1, 2012

6

Hardware IV

Computer Graphics

Microsoft Surface Technology
• Surface looks like surface of a table • No mouse or keyboard, just fingers moving and touching on the surface • Surface recognizes camera, mobile, etc. • File transfer from one device to another with just the flick of a finger • Touch animations and multimedia handling
» Video

August 1, 2012

7

Hardware IV

Computer Graphics

Wall Display
• No mouse or keyboard, just fingers moving on the surface or accepting a particular sign language or sound • Made using different technologies • Used in conferences, stadia and halls • Animations and multimedia handling
» Video

August 1, 2012

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Hardware IV

Computer Graphics

3D Dislplays With Glasses
Our two eyes see two different images and this produces the 3D perception of depth. Two images are produced in the display and we have to wear glasses to see 3D image getting different images for two eyes. Active-shutter glasses are actually small LCD screens that alternately dim the left and right "lenses" in succession. They rely on an infrared signal emitter in the TV that tells each pair of glasses when they should dim each lens, so each eye can see the image intended for it. Since active-shutter glasses are fairly complicated electronics, they're pricey: A typical pair usually runs about $150. They depend on batteries to keep running Continued …..
August 1, 2012 9

Hardware IV

Computer Graphics

……. 3D Dislplays With Glasses
Passive 3D glasses, on the other hand, are sort of like a pair of specially designed polarized sunglasses. Polarized 3D glasses block different kinds of light from each eye, creating the illusion of depth. That means you don't need any kind of expensive, delicate electronics in the glasses themselves, nor do you need a proprietary infrared emitter to sync with the glasses-but since each lens is blocking out light, you're technically not getting a full 1080p image for each eye, though your brain should be perceiving a 1080p image when it puts the two together.

Video
August 1, 2012 10

Hardware IV

Computer Graphics

3D Dislplays Without Glasses(Autosetreoscopic)
Among various display technologies , autostereoscopic displays such as volumetric, lenticular, parallax barrier, integral photography, and hologram displays, present a 3D image to a viewer without wearing glasses or other aids. Autostereoscopic systems display many different view images in time or spatially. Among them, lenticular display is easily manufacturable, provides high brightness, and generates multiple views. In the lenticular display, the LCD pixel array is located at the focal plane of a lenticular sheet. Lenticules are tiny lenses on the base side of a special film. Lenticules refract the lights from LCD pixel array, and make different images observed depending on the viewer’s eye position. Since the images viewed from left and right eyes are different, we may generate stereoscopic information or 3D image display. It interlaces two images. it depends upon the audience being in a sweet spot to get the 3-D effect. Continued …..
August 1, 2012 11

Hardware IV

Computer Graphics

…….. 3D Dislplays Without Glasses
A parallax barrier is a device placed in front of an image source, such as a liquid crystal display, to allow it to show a stereoscopic image or multiscopic image without the need for the viewer to wear 3D glasses. Placed in front of the normal LCD, it consists of a layer of material with a series of precision slits, allowing each eye to see a different set of pixels, so creating a sense of depth through parallax. A disadvantage of the technology is that the viewer must be positioned in a well-defined spot to experience the 3D effect. Another disadvantage is that the effective horizontal pixel count viewable for each eye is reduced by one half.

Video
August 1, 2012 12

Hardware IV

Computer Graphics

Holographic Displays
• • • • Made using laser technology 3-D display and 3-D Screens Contains a lot of information Useful for archiving 3-D objects, advertisements, exhibition of expensive objects • Holographic interactive Computer Screens • 3DAvailable in cell phones in a few years time
» Video I » Video II
August 1, 2012 13

Hardware IV

Raster and Vector Display

Computer Graphics

Raster Graphics
Monitors

How to generate a line using rasters
A line is represented by assigning some pixels a value of 1 The entire line is specified by the pixel values
August 1, 2012 14

Hardware IV

Computer Graphics

Vector Graphics
Plotters How to generate an image using vectors
A line is represented by endpoints (50,50) to (120,150) The points along the line are computed using a line equation y = mx + b
August 1, 2012 15

Hardware IV Bitmap Images vs

Computer Graphics
Vector Images

Enlarging a bitmap image simply enlarges the individual dots of color. The result is bigger, chunkier dots, with no additional detail.

When a vector image is enlarged, it is re-drawn at a higher resolution, displaying as much detail as possible from the original image.

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