The Beginnings of Civilization

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The Beginnings of Civilization

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The First People
Preview
• • • • • • • Starting Points Map: Early People and Agriculture Main Idea / Reading Focus Studying the Distant Past Faces of History: Mary and Louis Leakey Human Origins Quick Facts: Early Hominids Spreading Around the World

The Beginnings of Civilization

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The First People
Preview, continued
• • Map: Migration of Early Humans Life in the Stone Age

The Beginnings of Civilization
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The Beginnings of Civilization

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The First People
Main Idea
Scientific evidence suggests that modern humans spread from Africa to other lands and gradually developed ways to adapt to their environment.

Reading Focus
• What methods are used to study the distant past? • What does evidence suggest about human origins? • How did early people spread around the world? • How did early people adapt to life in the Stone Age?

The Beginnings of Civilization

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Studying the Distant Past
Much of the human story remains a mystery. Writing has existed for only about 5,000 years. To study prehistory, scholars must find and interpret clues. Anthropologists • Study culture: knowledge, art, customs • Examine artifacts: objects that people in the past made or used Archaeologists • Dig at sites where people have left traces • Use a variety of methods to date and analyze objects found

Anthropology continues to expand and revise our picture of the prehistoric past.

The Beginnings of Civilization

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Find the Main Idea How do scientists learn about prehistory?
Answer(s): by studying fossils, artifacts, and remains

The Beginnings of Civilization

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Human Origins
Where did the first people come from? When did they appear? Some key discoveries have provided important pieces to the puzzle. Early Hominids
• 1959—East Africa – Mary Leakey finds skull fragments – Hominid: humanlike being that walked upright • 1974—Ethiopia – Johanson finds “Lucy” – 4 foot-tall hominid who walked upright – lived 4 to 5 million years ago

Later Hominids
• More advanced hominids from about 3 million years ago • 1960s—Tanzania • Louis Leakey – Homo habilis (“handy man”) – More humanlike features – Made and used crude stone tools

The Beginnings of Civilization

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The Beginnings of Civilization Other hominids
• Homo erectus (“upright man”) • 2 to 1.5 million years ago in Africa • Larger brain; more skillful hunter • First hominid to control fire

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Modern humans
• Homo sapiens (“wise man”) • 200,000 years ago • Larger brain; more sophisticated tools • Learned to create fire • First to develop language

The Beginnings of Civilization

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The Beginnings of Civilization

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Identify Supporting Details What four main types of hominids have scientists identified based on fossil evidence?
Answer(s): Australopithecine, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo sapiens

The Beginnings of Civilization Climate and Migration
• Hominids learned to adapt • Began to move out of Africa • Movement occurred over hundreds of thousands of years

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Spreading Around the World
The Ice Ages
• Began 1.6 million years ago • Long periods of freezing weather cycled with warmer periods • Asia and North America joined at Bering Strait

Out of Africa
• Homo erectus first hominid to migrate • Fossils found in Asia and Europe • Homo sapiens migrated around 100,000 years ago • Might have used boats

Adapting to New Environments
• Adapted as they migrated • Two groups of Homo sapiens: – Neanderthals – Cro-Magnons

The Beginnings of Civilization

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Analyze Information How did the ice ages influence early human migration?
Answer(s): The ocean level dropped, exposing land bridges that allowed early humans to migrate around the world.

The Beginnings of Civilization

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The Beginnings of Civilization

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Life in the Stone Age
The first humans lived during the Stone Age, when people made tools mainly from stone. • Paleolithic Era • 2.5 million to 10,000 years ago • Stone Age people lived as nomads • Sheltered under rock overhangs or in caves • Hunter-gatherers

Technology
• • • • • • • First tools: crude chipped stones Later tools: wood and bone Spears for hunting Nets and traps for fish and birds Canoes from logs Clothing from animal skins Shelters from skins, wood, bones

Art and Religion
• Societies began to form • Common culture – language – art – religion • Animism • Belief in life after death?

The Beginnings of Civilization

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Summarize How did Stone Age people use technology to adapt and survive?
Answer(s): used fire, made tools and weapons