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RICHA TUTEJA 2909271

What

is a system?

A system is a way of working , organizing or doing one or many tasks according to a fixed plan, program or set of rules. A system is also an arrangement in which all its units assemble and work together according to the plan or program.

WATCH
It

is a time display SYSTEM PARTS: Hardware ,needles ,battery, Dial and strap RULES: 1. All needles move clockwise only 2. A thin needle rotates every second 3. A long needle rotates every minute 4. A short needle rotates every hour 5. All needles return to the original position after 12 hours

Definition: An Embedded System is one that has computer hardware with software embedded in it as one of its important components.

Task specific Can be optimized for a specific application Small size , Low weight Hand - held electronics and transportation applications Low power Battery power for 8+ hours Harsh environment Heat , vibration , shock , power fluctuations Extremely cost sensitive

Microcontroller is essentially a small and self sufficient computer on a chip , used to control devices. It has all the memory and I/O it needs on a board Characteristics of a Microcontroller: Low cost Small architecture , usually an 8-bit architecture Low speed, on the order of 10Khz-20Mhz Small memory size , but enough for the type of application it is intended for.

BLOCK DIAGRAM
Interrupt Control

4K ROM

128 RAM

Timer 0 Timer 1

CPU
OSC
Bus Control

4 I/O Ports

Serial Port
TXD RXD

P0

P1

P2

P3

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN P & C??????


Microprocessor
1. Contains no on chip RAM, ROM, I/O, TIMER, Serial port . 2. Used in General Purpose applications

Microcontroller
1. Contains on chip RAM, ROM, I/O, TIMER, Serial port . 2. Used in Specific Purpose app.

3. Dont provide data storage facility.


4. The structure of uP is as given below
Data Bus

3. Provides data storage facility.


4. The structure of uC is as follows:

CPU
CPU General purpose uP RAM ROM I/O
TIMER
SERIAL COM PORT

RAM

ROM

I/O

TIMER

SERIAL PORT

Address Bus

On chip flash memory.

4K X 8 ROM - Program memory. 128 x 8 RAM - Data memory. Multiple 16-bit Timer/Counter.

Full duplex UART (Serial port).


On chip clock oscillator. 32 I/O pins

8 Bit data path and ALU.


Six Interrupt sources

Port 1- pins (1-8): Input/output pins Contains internal pull-ups. Port 3- pins(10-17) Input/output pins. Contains internal pull-ups. Alternate functions to provide signals such as interrupts. Port 2- pins (21-28): Input/output port. Contains internal pull-ups. Used both as I/O port and higher address byte

Port 0- pins(32-39): Input/output pins. Required external Pull- up resisters of 10 k. Used both as I/O port and higher address byte PSEN- (pin 29): Program store enable Active low input Used while accessing external memory. Connected to OE pin of external ROM. ALE- (pin 30): Address Latch Enable Active high. Used for de-multiplexing the address and data by connecting G pin of 74LS373.

EA - (pin 31): Active low input. To access external ROM ,it must be GND. XTAL1and XTAL2 - (pin 19 and pin 18): Provides clock to quartz crystal oscillator. RST- (pin 9): Reset Active high input. Terminate all activities of c. Sets PC to 0. Requires minimum 2 machine cycles.

VCC - (pin 40)


GND (pin 20)

The junction between a user and a computer program. An interface is a set of commands through which a user communicates with a program. A command-driven interface is one in which you enter commands. A menu-driven interface is one in which you select command choices from various menus displayed on the screen. The user interface is one of the most important parts of any program because it determines how easily you can make the program do what we want to.

LED LCD

DC

MOTOR

VCC
D1 LED D2 LED D3 LED D4 LED D5 LED D6 Y? LED CRY STAL D7 LED R1 R D8 LED C? CAP NP 31 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 19 18 9 U?

40
P2.0/A8 P2.1/A9 P2.2/A10 P2.3/A11 P2.4/A12 P2.5/A13 P2.6/A14 P2.7/A15 P3.0/RXD P3.1/TXD P3.2/INTO P3.3/INT1 P3.4/TO P3.5/T1 P3.6/WR P3.7/RD PSEN ALE/PROG 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 29 30

P0.0/AD0 P0.1/AD1 P0.2/AD2 P0.3/AD3 P0.4/AD4 P0.5/AD5 P0.6/AD6 P0.7/AD7 P1.0/T2 P1.1/T2-EX P1.2 P1.3 P1.4 P1.5 P1.6 P1.7 XTAL1 XTAL2 RST EA/VPP

AT89C52

20

Household

Appliances Microwave ovens , Televisions , DVD Players and recorders Integrated Systems In Aircraft And Missiles Cellular telephones Electric and Electronic motor controllers Medical equipments Calculators , videogames Engine controllers in automobiles Digital musical instruments