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Sensor Network

1.Introduction
Goal

Wireless Sensor Network


Ubiquitous Computing Ubiquitous Network Society Human-centric

1.Introduction
Ubiquitous

Ubiquitous
7A Anytime Anyone Anywhere Any Device Affordable All Security Any Information/Service

1.Introduction
General Purpose

A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a


wireless network using sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions The development of wireless sensor networks was originally motivated by military applications. Wireless sensor networks are now used in many wide-range application areas.

1.Introduction
Sensors

Ultrasonic Magnetic Sensor (22.522.539mm)

WII sensor (2403515mm)

Image Sensor Modules (885.7mm)

1.Introduction
Typical Sensor Network
sensor Data gathering sensor Data transmitting

sensor

Relay node

Center
processing

Relay node

sensor

sensor

sensor

1.Introduction
sensor characteristics

Wireless sensors are small devices that


gather information.
Pressure, Humidity, Temperature Speed, Location

Wireless sensors have some


characteristics:
Low power Small size Low cost

1.Introduction
sensor network characteristics

Primary Function
Sample the environment for sensory information Propagate data back to the infrastructure

Traffic pattern in sensor network


Low activity in a long period Bursting data in short time Highly correlated traffic

1.Introduction
sensors categories

Sensors can be classified into two


categories:
Ordinary Sensors Data gathering Ordinary Sensors require external circuitry to
perform some dedicated tasks like data analyzing.

Smart Sensors Data gathering and processing Smart Sensors have internal circuitry to perform
dedicated tasks.

1.Introduction
Related Work

Related work
CSMA To improve the energy consumption by avoiding
overhearing among neighboring nodes

TDMA No contention-introduced overhead and collisions Not easy to manage the inter-cluster
communication and interference Not easy to dynamically change its frame length and time slot assignment

1.Introduction
Related Work
PAMAS Power off radio when not actively transmitting
and receiving packet.

Zigbee Combined with IEEE 802.15.4 (Low-Rate


Wireless Personal Area Network, LR-WPAN) Low rate: 250kbps Short distance: 50-300m Low power consumption frequency band:
Global: 2.4GHz ,16 channels America: 915MHz, 10 channels Europe: 868MHz, 1 channel.

1.Introduction
Zigbee stack

Zigbee Platform Stack and IEEE802.15.4


ZigBee or OEM

Application/Profiles

Application Framework

Network / Security Layers


MAC Layer PHY Layer
IEEE 802.15.4

ZigBee Alliance

Platform

1.Introduction
Zigbee Application

Reference: NTPZigBee

2.MAC for Sensor Network


Sensor Network MAC Protocol

Carrier Sensing
Only during low traffic load.

Backoff
Backoff in application layer is desired other than in MAC layer.

Contention
RTS-CTS only during high traffic load.

2.MAC for Sensor Network


Sources of Energy Wastage

The major sources of energy wastage are:


Collisions Overhearing Control packet overhead Idle listening

Achieving good scalability and collision


avoidance capability is necessary.

2.MAC for Sensor Network


S-MAC

Sensor-MAC (S-MAC): Medium Access Control


for Wireless Sensor Networks

S-MAC is a medium-access control (MAC)


protocol designed for wireless sensor networks.

Sensor networks are deployed in an ad hoc


fashion, with individual nodes remaining largely inactive for long periods of time, but then becoming suddenly active when something is detected.

2.MAC for Sensor Network


S-MAC

These characteristics of sensor networks


and applications motivate a MAC that is different from traditional wireless MACs such as IEEE 802.11 in almost every way
Energy conservation and self-configuration are primary goals. Per-node fairness and latency are less important.

2.MAC for Sensor Network


Three techniques in S-MAC

S-MAC uses three techniques to reduce


energy consumption.
Nodes go to sleep periodically. Nearby nodes form virtual clusters to synchronize their wake-up and sleep periods to keep the control packet overhead of the network low. Message passing is used to reduce the contention latency and control overhead.

2.MAC for Sensor Network


Three techniques in S-MAC

Periodic Listen and Sleep:


Nodes do not waste energy by listening to an empty channel or when a neighboring node is transmitting to another node. Nodes use RTS and CTS to talk to each other and contend for the medium.

2.MAC for Sensor Network


Three techniques in S-MAC

Collision and Overhearing Avoidance:


S-MAC adopts a contention-based scheme to avoid collisions. A duration field is introduced in each transmitted packet which indicates how much longer the transmission will last. When a node receives a packet, it will not transmit
any packets for at least the time that is specified in the duration field.

2.MAC for Sensor Network


Three techniques in S-MAC

Collision and Overhearing Avoidance:


Overhearing is avoided by letting the nodes, which get RTS and CTS packets which are not meant for them, go to sleep. All immediate neighbors also go to sleep till the current transmission is completed after a sender or receiver receives the RTS or CTS packet.

2.MAC for Sensor Network


Three techniques in S-MAC

Message Passing:
Long messages are fragmented into smaller messages and transmitted in a burst. To avoid the high overhead and delay encountered
for retransmitting when message is lost.

ACK messages are used to indicate if a fragment is lost at any time. The sender can resend the fragment again. The ACK message also have the duration field to
reduce overhearing and collisions.

3. Challenges
Challenges:
1. Energy Efficiency: Power consumptions are crucial to wireless sensor
network applications because sensor nodes are not connected to any energy source. Energy efficiency is a dominant consideration no matter what the problem is. Sensor nodes only have a small and finite source of energy. Many solutions, both hardware and software related, have been proposed to optimize energy usage.

3. Challenges
2. Ad hoc deployment:
Most sensor nodes are deployed in regions which
have no infrastructure. We must cope with the changes of connectivity and distribution.

3. Unattended operation:
Generally, once sensors are deployed, there is no
human intervention for a long time. Sensor network must reconfigure by itself when certain errors occur.

3. Challenges
4. Dynamic changes: As changes of connectivity due to addition of more
nodes or failure of nodes, Sensor network must be able to adapt itself to changing connectivity.

4.Coverage
Coverage can be classified into three
types:
Area coverage deployment of sensors to cover a given area Point coverage deployment of sensors to cover a set of points Barrier coverage The goal is to minimize the probability of
undetected penetration through the barrier. To find a path in a region For any point on the path, the distance to the closest sensor is minimized.

4.Coverage
Area coverage

Area
coverage
deployment of sensors to cover a given area

4.Coverage
Point coverage

Point
coverage
deployment of sensors to cover a set of points

4.Coverage
Point coverage

Barrier
coverage
To find a path from A to B For any point on the path, the distance to the closest sensor is minimized.

5.Localization
In sensor networks, nodes are deployed
without priori knowledge about their locations.

Estimating spatial-coordinates of the node


is referred to as localization.

5.Localization
GPS

Global Positioning System (GPS) is an


immediate solution. There some factors against the usage of GPS:
GPS can work only outdoors. GPS receivers are too expensive to unsuitable for wide-range deployment. It cannot work in the presence of obstructions.

5.Localization
Categories

Localization can be classified into two


categories:
Fine-grained Based on timing / signal strength Coarse-grained Based on proximity

5.Localization
Proximity base localization

Trilateration / Multilateration technique


Proximity based localization: Some nodes which can know their position through
some technique (ex. GPS) broadcast their position information. Other nodes listen to these broadcast messages and calculate their own position. A simple method would be to calculate its position as the centroid of all the positions it has obtained. This method leads to accumulation of localization error.

5.Localization
Trilateration Example

Trilateration
A is 5m from B A is 10m from C A is 8m from D
B
A

5.Localization
Trilateration

Trilateration is a geometric principle which


allows us to find a location if its distance from other nodes are known. The same principle can be extended to three-dimensional space.
Four spheres would be needed to locate certain point in 3D space.

5.Localization
Fine-grained method

Signal strength method


Attenuation happens when signals are propagated. We can use the degree of attenuation to calculate the distance.

Timing method
The distance between two nodes is determined by the time of flight of the signal.

6.Routing
Categories

Routing protocols can be divided into two


types.
Proactive routing protocol Proactive routing protocol maintain consistent
updated routing information between all nodes. To update routing table periodically.

Reactive routing protocol Routes are created only when they are needed.

6.Routing
Three types in sensor network

Because of the energy constrained nature


of sensor networks, conventional routing protocols have many limitations when being applied to sensor networks. Three types of routing protocol in sensor network:
Data-centric Hierarchical Location-based

6.Routing
Data-centric

Data-centric:
Managers broadcast a Query message to the network. If a sensor observes some events related to the Query message, it sends the data to the data center. Data aggregation:
sensor1 Data A Data A Relay node1 Data A Data Center

sensor2

6.Routing
Data-centric

Data centric: Flooding Flooding is one of basic data transmitting


methods. If any sensor receives or generates some packets, it will broadcast these packets to all its neighbors.
Nodes may receive duplicate data. More power consumption.

6.Routing
Data-centric

Data centric: Sensor Protocols for


Information via Negotiation (SPIN)
There are three messages in SPIN: Advertisement (ADV): When a node has some
data to send, it sends an ADV message to its neighbors containing data descriptor (meta-data). Request (REQ): When a node wants to receive some data. It sends an REQ message first. DATA: Actual data message with a meta-data header.

6.Routing
Data-centric
SPIN:

ADV (meta data A)

Node3 Node6
DATA REQ ADV (meta data A)

Node1
ADV (meta data A)

ADV ADV DATA REQ (meta data A) (meta data A)

Node4
ADV (meta data A)

Node2

Node7

Node5

6.Routing
Data centric

Data centric: Directed Diffusion This is a destination-initiated reactive routing


technique.
Routes are established when requested.

A interest is propagated throughout the network


for named data by a node and data which matches this interest is then sent toward this nodes.
Interests are described by a list of attribute-value pairs. Example: type=birds & response=20 ms

6.Routing
Data centric

Directed Diffusion
The propagation of data and its aggregation at intermediate nodes on the way to the request originating node are determined by the messages which are exchanged between neighboring nodes within some distance.

6.Routing
Data centric
Directed Diffusion:
Node1
interest interest

Node1
interest Gradient

Gradient

Node4
interest

Gradient

Node4
Gradient

Node2
interest

Node2
Gradient

interest

Gradient

Node5
interest

interest

Node5
Gradient

Gradient

Node3

Node3
interest

Gradient

Node7 Node6
Gradient

Node7

Node6 interest

Forward interest

return path (Gradient)

6.Routing
Data centric Directed Diffusion:
Sender can choose the best return path. EX: minimum response time, least hops
Node1 Node4 Node2 Node5 Node3 Node6 Node7

6.Routing
Hierarchical

Hierarchical: Low Energy Adaptive


Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH)
LEACH is a two-tier protocol. Cluster head Cluster member Every node runs a random algorithm periodically to decide its identity. (cluster head or not)

6.Routing
Hierarchical

LEACH
All cluster heads broadcast Advertisement (ADV) message and other nodes decide which cluster they belong to according the strength of ADV message. Cluster members only send data to their cluster head. Then, cluster heads reply data to Sinks.

6.Routing
Hierarchical
Cluster 2

LEACH Example

Node6

Node5
Cluster Head2

Node7

Node4 Node3 Sink


Cluster Head1

Node8 Node9 Node10


Cluster Head3

Node2

Node11 Node12

Node1

Node13

Cluster 3 Cluster 1

6.Routing
Location-based

Location-based: Geographic Adaptive


Fidelity (GAF) GAF divides the network into several virtual grids.
For adjacent virtual grids A and B, every node in A can directly connect with every node in B.

In GAF, every node has three types of


status:
Active Discovery Sleep

6.Routing
Location-based

GAF:
Initially, every node is in discovery status and tries to find out nodes belong to the same grid with itself. Every node in discovery status sets a timer Td. Once the Td timer ends, Nodes broadcast discovery message and get into active status.

6.Routing
Location-based

GAF:
When a node is in active status, it will start a timer Ta. Data transmission is allowed until Ta timer ends. In active status, nodes will periodically broadcast
discovery message at Td intervals. Once Ta timer ends, nodes return to discovery status.

6.Routing
Location-based

GAF:
If a node in discovery status receives a discovery message sent from the node which is in the same grid and has higher ranking, it will get into sleep status. After a Ts timer, it will return to discovery status. Ranking can be done by remaining power or ID
sequence.