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Presented by: Mahima Bhatnagar Rashmikant Jha Rouni Nishima Minj

The process of imparting colours to a Textile material through a dye (colour). can be done during any stage in the textile manufacturing process. Textiles may be dyed as fibre, as yarn, as fabric, as garments, depending upon the type of the fabric or garment being produced.

Dyeing has been done for many centuries and is a very large industry. Most dyes currently used consist of coal tar and other petroleum based substances. A dye can come in the form of a powder, liquid, granule or paste. A dye can vary in hue, brightness, strength, and colour-fastness.

Major Dye Classifications

Cellulosic Fibers Protein Fibers Manufactured Fibers Cellulosic Fibers Dyes Azoic or Naphthol Dyes Direct Dyes Reactive Dyes Vat Dyes Protein Fibers Acid Dyes Pre-metalized Acid Dyes Manufactured Fiber Dyes Cationic or Basic Dyes Disperse Dyes

Stable and attractive in color Affinity with the fibers either dye should be attached by physical or chemical bond or should be trapped inside fibers Should be soluble in water /any medium /should form stable dispersion Resistant to heat, water, light, dry cleaning etc

Dye is a combination of two basic components: Chromophore: It is the color-imparting group present in a dye. The compound containing Chromophore is known as chromogen. Examples are Nitro (-NO2), Nitroso (-N=O), Azo (-N=N-), Keto, Thioketo etc. Auxochrome: It acts auxiliary to color and performs two fold action. It intensifies color of a dye and increases affinity of dye towards textile substrate. Examples are NH2, -COOH, -SO3H, -OH etc.

1. Migration of dye from solution to interface is accompanied by adsorption on the surface of the fiber. 2.Diffusion of dye occurs from the surface towards the centre of fiber Anchoring of dye molecules is carried out by covalent or hydrogen bonds or other forces of a physical nature

Dye absorbed by the fiber [D]f against the conc. of the dye [D]s in the liquor at constant temp. Nernst Isotherm curve is straight line, terminates at a point (when both fiber and dye bath are saturated) Langmuir Isotherm definite no. of sites within the fiber curve become parallel when all cites are occupied Freundlich Isotherm attachment is not at specific sites curve is not a straight line nor does it reach a point at which it becomes parallel


Method of dyeing being used depends upon, - different types of fibre, - different stages of the textile production process, - size of dye lots, - quality requirements in the dyed fabric.


Different dyeing methods can be classified into two categories. 1.Based on stages of textile production, - Stock dyeing - Yarn dyeing - Piece dyeing - Garment dyeing

2. Based on the applications of dyes, - Direct dyeing - Sulphur dyeing - Vat dyeing - Reactive Dyeing - Acid dyeing Direct dyeing and Yarn dyeing are the popularly used methods.

Types Of Dyeing Process

There are mainly two types of dyeing process followed by industries on the basis of the series of steps involved. They are,
Continuous Dyeing Process Batch Dyeing Process

Types Of Dyeing Process

Continuous Dyeing: A Continuous dyeing process typically consists the following. Dye application, dye fixation with heat or chemicals and finally washing. Continuous dyeing has been found to be most suitable for woven fabrics. Mostly continuous dye ranges are designed for dyeing blends of polyester and cotton. A continuous dye range has been found useful and economically sustainable for dyeing long runs of a given shade.

Batch Dyeing: the most popular and common method used for dyeing of textile materials. sometimes referred to as Exhaust dyeing. the dye gets slowly transferred from a comparatively large volume dyebath to the substrate or material that is to be dyed. The time taken is also longer. The dye is meant to 'exhaust' from dyebath to the substrate.

There are three general types of batch dyeing machines.

1. where there is circulation of fabric. 2.where the dyebath gets circulated while the material that is being dyed remains stationary. 3. where both the bath and material to be dyed gets circulated.

Examples of dyeing machines that utilizes batch dyeing process are Beck, Jet, Jigs, Beam Package dyeing machines etc.

Process of Continuous Dyeing:

The textile substrates are feeded continuously into a dye range. The speeds can vary between 50 to 250 meters per minute. A Continuous dyeing process typically consists the following. Dye application, dye fixation with heat or chemicals and finally washing.

Batch dyeing

Continuous dyeing

Comparison b/w Batch Dyeing and Continuous Dyeing

Process of dyeing of the fibers, or stock, before it is spun in to yarn. Process: - done by putting loose, unspun fibres into large vats containing the dye bath. - then heated to the appropriate high temperature(100 deg C) required for the dye app large vats containing the dye bath. - staple fibers are packed at high pressure into a vessel and then dye liquid is forced through them. usually suitable for woollen materials when heather like colour effects are desired.

Expensive method of dyeing. During yarn spinning there is wastage of dyed fibers. Penetration of dye into fiber is excellent.


Dope Dyeing
This is a method applied for dyeing the synthetic fibers. Dye is added to the solution before it is extruded through the spinnerets for making synthetic filaments. This gives a colorfast fiber as the pigments are used which are the fastest known colors

Dope Dyeing
POSITIVE FEATURES Solutions dyed colors are fade proof under all conditions. Color fastness to light is outstanding mainly used for Draperies, outdoor carpets, Automotive fabrics Other applications where long sun light exposure. To produce darker shades in blue, black, brown and green are widely used in fashion apparel fabrics because, range of colors . Perfect color re production consistency from dye lot to lot can be achieved. Solution-dyed fabrics of acetate do not gas fade.

Dope Dyeing

To produce darker shades in blue, black, brown and green are widely used in fashion apparel fabrics because, range of colors is very limited

Dope dyeing machine

The process of dyeing yarns before they have been woven or knitted into fabrics. dyestuff penetrates the fibers in the core of the yarn. used to create interesting checks, stripes, and plaids with different-coloured yarns in the weaving process. Different methods for yarn dyeing, - Skein Dyeing (Hank dyeing) - Package dyeing - Warp-Beam dyeing - Space dyeing


A. SKEIN DYEINGPROCESS : -skeins of yarn are mounted on a carrier which has rods (sticks) at the top and bottom to hold the skeins. -skeins are suspended in the dye machine and dye liquor is gently circulated around the hanging skeins. most costly yarn-dye method. the colour penetration is the best and the yarns retain a softer, loftier feel. mostly used for bulky acrylic and wool yarns for knitted outwears.

skein dyeing machine with pullout arms

Spout skein dyeing machine

Skein dyeing machine

Skein Died Shirt

Skein dyeing

B. Package Dyeing
The process refers to dyeing of yarn which has been wound on perforated cores so that dye liquor can be forced through the package. Packages may be tubes, cheeses or cones. Cores for dye packages may be rigid stainless steel, plastic or paper. Plastic and paper types are normally intended to be used only once while stainless steel cores can be reused indefinitely.

The flow of liquid can be either from inside-tooutside of the package or outside-in. Most package dyeing machines are capable of dyeing temperatures up to 135C. Liquor ratio in a package dye machine is typically about 1O:1, when the machine is fully loaded. The carded and combed cotton which are used for knitted outerwear is Package dyed yarns. Do not retain the softness and loftiness that skein-dyed yarns do.

Dyed Packages

Package Dyeing machine

C. Warp Beam Dyeing Beam dyeing is the much larger version of package dyeing. An entire warp beam of warp yarn or woven fabric is wound on to a perforated cylinder made of wood or metal. This cylinder is placed in the Beam Dyeing Machine. The dye is forced through the perforated cylinder from inside out and from the outside in.

The dye bath alternates same as the package dyeing. More economical than skein or package dyeing. Provides good color absorption. but it is only used in the manufacture of woven fabrics where an entire warp beam is dyed. Knitted fabrics, which are mostly produced from the cones of the yarn, are not adaptable to beam dyeing. Beam dyeing of warps is practical in producing patterned fabrics(designing plaids, checks and stripes) where the warp yarn will be one colour and the filling will be another colour.

Derby warp beam dyeing machine

Warp Beam Dyeing Machine

D. Space Dyeing
In this method, the yarn is dyed at intervals along its length. For these two procedures are adopted1. knit- deknit method - the yarn is knitted on either a circular or flat-bed knitting machine and the knitted cloth is then dyed and subsequently it is deknitted. Since the dye does not readily penetrate the areas of the yarn where it crosses itself, alternated dyed and undyed spaces appear.
2. OPI Space-Dye Applicator technique - produces multi coloured space dyed yarns. The yarns are dyed intermittently as they run at high speeds of upto 1000 yards (900 m) per minute through spaced dye baths with continuous subjection to shock waves produced by compressed air assuming supersonic velocities.

Space Dyed yarns

Dyeing that occurs after a fabric is made (knitted or woven), but before it is assembled into a garment. applies colour to fabric that is still in its colourless greige (pronounced "gray") state. The fastest and cheapest method of cloth dyeing. the most common method of dyeing used. Generally used to produce single solid color. often used in blazers and solid-colour slacks. The textile manufacturer can dye the whole fabric in batches according to the fashion demands of the time thus avoiding wastage and resultantly loss.

Various methods used for this type of dyeing include , - Beck dyeing - Jet dyeing, - Jigger dyeing, - Pad dyeing and - Beam dyeing.

A. Beck Dyeing Dye beck of Beck Dyeing Machine consists of a reservoir or trough which contains the dye bath and a reel to move the loop of fabric through the dye formulation. The liquor to goods ratio used in becks is typically 15:l or higher although becks using ratios as low as 4:l are available. Atmospheric becks can be used for dyeing at temperatures up to 1OO deg C. Pressurized becks are used for dyeing at temperatures higher than 1OO deg C. The dye beck is sometimes called a winch because of the winch mechanism used to move the fabric.

The ends of the fabric piece to be dyed are sewn together to make a continuous loop. The reel pulls the fabric out of the dye liquor in the trough and over an idler roll. After leaving the reel, the fabric slides down the back wall of the beck and gradually works its way from the back toward the front of the machine. The individual loops are separated from one another by a dividing device called the Peg rail.

The trough is slanted at its rear to allow the fabric layers to slide down into the dye liquor and move gradually toward the front of the machine. Chemicals and dyes used in the dyeing are added to a compartment at the front of the beck. The divider separating the compartment from the trough is perforated, allowing the added chemicals to gradually become mixed with the liquor in the trough. Live steam is injected into the compartment to heat the liquor to the required temperature.

Advantages: The greatest advantages of beck dyeing are simplicity, versatility and relatively low price. A continuous strand can be dyed instead of the usual multiple loops of fabric. Disadvantages: Becks subject fabrics to relatively low lengthwise tension and encourage the development of yarn crimp and fabric bulk. use large amounts of water, chemicals and energy. Becks can cause abrasion, creasing and distortion of some fabrics.

Beck dyeing machines

Innovation in winch dyeing machine

Multi Contact Dyeing CCR Combined Cooling and Rising 100% Stock tank Power drain & fill Automatic filter Water meter Liquor Ratio 1:5 pH FiT Analogue Dosing Analogue levels Vario chamber RINSE tronic

Features Multi Contact Dyeing & rinsing using dual nozzles Liquor ratio 1:4.5 - 1:5 RINSEtronic rinsing system reduces process time and water consumption Winch speed up to 400 m/min Liquor ratio reduced by new sump and pump configuration Standard step filter

Beck dyed quilt

B. Jet Dyeing A high-temperature piece-dyeing machine that circulates the dye liquor through a Venturi jet, thus imparting a driving force to move the fabric. The fabric, in rope form, is sewn together to form a loop. Process: Dyeing is accomplished in a closed tubular system, composed of an impeller pump and a shallow dye bath. Fabric to be dyed is loosely collapsed in the form of the rope and tied into a loop. A powerful pump circulates the liquor through a heat exchanger outside of the main vessel and back into the jet machine. The fabric travels at high velocity of 200-800 meters per minute.

The impeller pump supplies a jet of dye solution propelled by water or/and air, which transports the fabric within the dyeing system surrounded by liquor. Turbulence is created by the jet aids in dye penetration and prevents the fabric from touching the walls of the tube. Thus minimizing mechanical impact on the fabric.

Advantages: Vigorous agitation of fabric and dye formulation in the cloth tube increases the dyeing rate and uniformity. Rapid circulation of fabric through the machine minimizes creasing. Lengthwise tension on the fabric is low so the fabric develops bulk and fullness of handle. Dyeing at high temperature of about 130 deg C gives rapid dyeing, improved dye utilization, improved fastness properties. The lower liquor ratio used in jet dyeing allows shorter dye cycles and saves water, chemicals and energy. Short dyeing time.

Disadvantages: Capital and maintenance costs are higher. Limited accessibility makes cleaning between dyeing and sampling for color during the dye cycle difficult. The jet action tends to make formulations foam in partially flooded jet machines.


In deciding the type of dyeing machine the following features are generally taken into consideration for differentiating. - Shape of the area where the fabric is stored i.e. long shaped machine or J-box compact machine. - Type of the nozzle along with its specific positioning i.e. above or below the bath level. Depending more or less in this criteria for differentiation following types of Jet Machines can be said to be as developments of the conventional jet dyeing machine. - Overflow Dyeing Machine
- Soft-flow Dyeing Machine - Airflow Dyeing Machine

Overflow dyeing machine

Soft flow dyeing machine

Airflow dyeing machine

C. Jig Dyeing Jig Dyeing machine processes fabrics in open width to avoid creasing problems in fabric dyeing. The Jig Dyeing machine operates by transferring the fabric back and forth. A jig consists of a trough for the dye or chemical formulation. The fabric from a roll on one side of the machine is run through the formulation in the trough and wound on a roll on the opposite side of the jig. When the second roll is full, the drive is reversed, and the fabric is transferred through the formulation back to the first roll. Live steam injected into the bottom of the trough through a perforated pipe across the width of the jig heats the formulation.

Types of Jig Machines: Atmospheric Jigs- Atmospheric jigs operate at atmospheric temperatures and pressures. These machines are applied for natural fibres. Here the temperature limit is typically 1000 degree Centigrade. High Temperature Jigs- A high temperature jig functions in the same way as an atmospheric jig but comes with the addition of a pressure vessel that is designed to function at 1300 deg C. The pressure vessel also helps in having a close control of the dyeing temperature. Typically it is applied for dyeing synthetic fibres.

< Atmospheric jig machine

High temperature jig >


Fully computer controlled normal temperature and pressure Jig Dyeing Machine Features: Operates by electricity, and fully controlled by a PLC Cutting edge technology in the form of speed measuring device on foot roll barrel. This helps in maintaining uniform line speed along with a reliable testing signal. Comes with built in dye solution circulatory system and charging system. Use of latest technologies in the form of automatic: Reverse Way-change Length Count Temperature Control


Maxi-Jig Electronic MJE 1400 is the most innovated machine for preparation, pretreatment and dyeing of fabric in open width

Garment dyeing is the process of dyeing fully fashioned garments (such as pants, pullovers, t-shirts, jeans) subsequent to manufacturing opposed to the conventional method of manufacturing garments from pre-dyed fabrics. As opposed to the conventional method of manufacturing garments from pre-dyed fabrics. Most garments are made of cotton knit goods and/or cotton woven fabrics. Although several other fabrics can be found in the whole or in part such as wool, nylon, silk, acrylic, polyester and others. Due to cost savings and fashion trends, garment dyeing has been gaining importance and popularity in the past years and will continue to do so in the future.

Need of garment dyeing Traditionally, garments are constructed from fabrics that are pre dyed (piece dyed) before the actual cutting and sewing. - The advantage of this process is the cost effectiveness of mass producing identical garments of particular colors. - Quick Response to the market (bar coding etc.,) - Ability to supply a wide range of colorations to the retailer, but only in the shades that are selling. - Reduced discounted sales at inventory. - Best way to achieved relaxed, casual look. - Ability to create special effects such as tie dyed, pigment dyed and washed down in a single process etc. A major drawback with this approach is the risk associated with carrying a large inventory of a particular style or color in todays dynamic market.


Advantages: Flexibility towards fast changing. Quick response and rapid turnaround. Flexibility towards dye shades. Flexibility of lot size. Flexibility of items to be dyed. Comparatively less rejection. Low inventory. Fancy effects Less capital investments Disadvantages: Labour intensive process and market trends requires thorough checking of every piece. Higher seconds rate. Poor appearance and finishes. Poor reproducibility of shades. Special care in the selection of fittings. More material handling.


There are two types of equipment regularly used for garment dyeing. 1. Paddle machines- A high liquor ratio is required for paddle machines, which is less economical and may limit shade reproducibility. 2. Rotary drums Machines- sometimes preferred for garments, which require gentler handling, such as sweaters.


Types of machines:
Paddle machines: A. Horizontal Paddle Machine B. Lateral / oval paddle C. HT Paddle Machines Rotary Drums: A. Rotary Drum Dyeing Machine B. Tumbler Dyeing Machine Toroid Dyeing Machine Modified Pegg Toroid Whiteley garment dyeing machine The Gyrobox MCS Readymade garment dyeing machine Leemetals epicyclic Paddle dyeing machine



Working Principle: A process of dyeing textiles in a machine that gently move the goods using paddles similar to a paddle wheel on a boat. This is a slow process, but there is extremely little abrasion on the goods


Horizontal Paddle Machines

(over head paddle machine) Paddle consist of a curved beck like lower Wheel suction to contain the materials and the dye liquor. The goods are moved by a rotating paddle, which extends across the width of the machine. Half immersed paddles cause the material to move upwards and Drain downwards through out the liquor. The temperature can be raised to 98o C in such system.


Lateral / oval paddle Peddle

This machines consist of oval tank to enhance the fluid flow and the processing the goods. In the middle of this tank is a closed oval island. The paddle moves in a lateral direction and is not half Circulation submerged in the liquor. The temperature can be increased up to 98 deg C.


HT Paddle Machines
It works according to the bucket principle of horizontal paddle. however, the temperature can be raised up to 140 deg C. PES articles are preferably drainage valve dyed on HT paddles


The dyeing can be carried out with 30:1 to 40:1 Liquor to Material Ratio. Lower ratios reduces optimum movement of the goods, lead to unlevelled dyeing, crease formation. For gentleness, the blades of the paddle are either curved or have rounded edges. The rotating speed of the paddle can be regulated from 1.5 to 40 rpm. Circulation of the liquor should be strong enough to prevent goods from sinking to the bottom. Paddle machines are suitable for dyeing articles of all substrates in all forms of make ups. The goods are normally dyed using PP/PET bags.

General Parameters & Features In paddle machines


Rotary Drum Dyeing Machine

Movement of textile material and a stationary liquor. The rotary drum dyeing machine Steam Pipe consists of rotating perforated cylindrical drum , which rotates slowly inside a vessel of slightly bigger in size. The internal drum is divided into compartments to ensure rotation of goods with the drum rotation. The outer vessel holds the required quantity of dye liquor. High temperature drum machines are capable of processing the garments up to 140 deg C.

GARMENT DYEING MACHINES Features of modern rotary-dyeing Machine

Lower liquor ratio Gentle movement of goods and liquor (minimizes surface abrasion) Rapid heating and cooling Centrifugal extraction Variable drum speed with reversal capability (adaptable to a wide variety of goods) Continuous circulation of goods (improves migration control) Ease of sampling Variable water levels with overflow rinsing capabilities Large diameter feed and discharge lines (minimizes filling and draining time) Microprocessor controls Lint filters Pressure dyeing Auto-balancing drums

GARMENT DYEING MACHINES Working Features of Rotary Machine

the goods are treated in a perforated inner drum housed within an outer drum (dyeing tank). Inner drums without dividing walls are provided with ribs that carry the goods along for a certain time, partially lifting them up out of the liquor. These machines can operate at very low liquor ratios and can dye the goods up to 98 -140 deg C. This is suitable for knits as well as other garments. Liquor circulation can be intensified using additional jets. Drums can be rotated in both the directions.


Tumbler Dyeing Machine

These machines are being used for small garments either in loose form or in open mesh bags. Design wise the tumbler dyeing machines are similar to the commercial laundering machines. The principle of operation is to load the material into perforated inner SS tanks , which rotates round a horizontal shaft fixed at the back of the drum. The drum is divided into compartments for moving the goods with rotation of drum.


A variety of tumbling machines have higher rotation speeds and can spin dry at the end of the cycle. These are similar to dry-cleaning machines. Rotating drum machines are more efficient and cleaner to operate than paddle machines. The more vigorous mechanical action often promotes more shrinkage and bulking, which may be desirable for some articles. In order to handle higher quantities and large production of similar pieces the latest machines are provided with several automatic features and sophistications.

General Parameters & Features of Tumbler Dyeing Machine


Toroid Dyeing Machine

In these machines the garments circulate in the liquor in a toroidal path with the aid of an impeller situated below the perforated false bottom of the vessel. Movement of the goods depends completely on the pumped action of the liquor. High-temperature versions of this machine operating at 120 to 130C were developed in the 1970s for dyeing fullyfashioned polyester or triacetate garments. The liquor ratio of such machines is about 30:1.


Modified Pegg Toroid Whiteley garment dyeing machine

This is an improved version of Toroid machines , the additional features are: The machine is suitable for both atmospheric and pressure dyeing. Full automation upto hydro extraction. The design features, speed and performance is simplified to make the machine more versatile and free from operating problems.


The Gyrobox
The machine has support in the form of a large wheel, which is divided into 12 independent non radial compartments. The goods are placed in these compartments . The wheel runs at a moderate speed of 2-6 rpm. The main advantage of this machine are, 1.Reduced M:L 2.Different types of garments can be dyed simultaneously . 3.Flexible loading 4.Fully automatic operation.

The MCS Readymade garment dyeing machine: These machines are suitable for dyeing pure cotton, wool, polyester, cotton blends in the form of T shirts, sweaters, bath rugs and accessories , socks and stockings.


Based on application of dyes: 1. Direct dyeing When a dye is applied directly to the fabric without the aid of an affixing agent, it is called direct dyeing. In this method the dyestuff is either fermented (for natural dye) or chemically reduced (for synthetic vat and sulphur dyes) before being applied. The direct dyes, which are largely used for dyeing cotton, are water soluble and can be applied directly to the fibre from an aqueous solution This can be done with very small or fairly large amounts of fibre

Direct, or substantive, dyes are applied to the fabric from a hot aqueous solution of the dye. Under these conditions, the dye is more soluble and the wet ability of natural fibres is increased, improving the transport of dye molecules into the fabric. In many cases, the fabric is pre-treated with metallic salts or mordants to improve the fastness and to vary the colour produced by a given dye.

2. Sulphur dyeing Sulphur Dyes are synthetic organic dyes which are inherently water insoluble. It is made water soluble by the help of a Reducing agent and after that it is exhausted on the textile substrate. After exhaustion on substrate the dye is oxidised and again converted to water insoluble parent form.

Sulphur dyes have found a wide acceptance among garment dyers more recently because of their inherent poor fastness to chlorine. Nowadays the acid-wash or ball-wash has become very popular, where in the garments are dyed with sulphur dyes and subsequently treated with thermocol balls previously soaked in Hypo or Pot. Permanganate solution. The final effect achieved is a great wash down look which cannot be achieved with other classes of dyes. Further this concept of dyeing is not restricted only to denims or woven but is also used for knitted garments.

3. Vat Dyeing Vat dyeing is a process that refers to dyeing that takes place in a bucket or vat. Conversion of a soluble species to an insoluble dye after transfer to the fibre is the basis of vat dyeing. Cotton, wool, and other fibers can be all dyed with vat dyes. Although almost all dyeing can be done in a vat, the term vat dye is used to describe a chemical class of dyes that are applied to cellulosic fibre (cotton) using a redox reaction

The dye is soluble only in its reduced (oxygenfree) form. The fibre is immersed repeatedly in this oxygen-free dye bath, then exposed to the air, whereupon the water-soluble reduced form changes colour as oxygen turns it to the water-insoluble form.

4. Reactive dyeing Reactive dyeing directly links the colorant to the fibre by formation of a covalent bond. For years, the idea of achieving high wet fastness for dyed cotton by this method was recognized, but early attempts employed conditions so drastic that partial degradation of the fibres occurred.

1.Discontinuoues method of reactive dyeing 2.Semi continuous method of reactive dyeing a) Pad jig reactive dye method b) Pad batch reactive dye method 3.Continuoues method of reactive dyeing a) Pad steam reactive dye method b) Pad thermofixation reactive dye method