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Definition of alkaliphiles. History of alkaliphiles. Classification of alkaliphiles. Applications of alkaliphiles. Distribution and isolation of alkaliphiles. Uses of alkaliphiles Future of alkaliphiles in biotechnology. References.
Alkaliphiles Mono Lake. pH 9 & salinity 8% .alkaline soda lake.
Alkaliphiles include prokaryotes. The cell surface plays a key role in keeping the intracellular pH value in the range between 7 and 8.5. although viable counts of alkaliphiles are higher in samples from alkaline environment.DEFINITION OF ALKALIPHILE Alkaliphiles can be isolated from normal environment such as garden soil.eukaryotes and archaea. .
From ancient times indigo has been naturally reduced under alkaline conditions in the presence of sodium carbonate. only 16 scientiﬁc papers on the topic could be found when experiments on alkaliphilic bacteria were started in 1968.more than thousand papers on many aspects of alkaliphiles have been published.History of alkaliphile The discovery of alkaliphiles was fairly recent. The use of alkaliphilic microorganisms has a long history. Since the rediscovery of alkaliphilic bacteria . .
The ﬁrst paper concerning an alkaline protease was published in 1971. formerly.History of alkaliphile Indigo from indigo leaves is reduced by particular bacteria that grow under these highly alkaline conditions in a traditional process called indigo fermentation. however. were not conducted until the rediscovery of these alkaliphiles. indigo reduction was controlled only by the skill of the craftsman Microbiological studies of the process. . The most important factor in this process is the control of the pH value. Alkaliphiles remained little more than interesting biological curiosities. and at that time no further industrial application was attempted or even contemplated.
. Recent studies show that alkaliphilic bacteria have also been found in deep-sea sediments collected from depths up to the 10. as well as occupying specific extreme environments in nature. Illustrates the relationship between the occurrence of alkaliphilic microorganisms and the pH of the sample origin. have been isolated from a variety of environments . Many different kinds of alkaliphilic microorganisms.Classification Of Alkaliphile o Aerobic alkaliphiles.898 m of the Mariana Trench. and Streptomyces and eukaryotes such as yeasts and filamentous fungi. Pseudomonas. Alkaliphilic microorganisms coexist with neutrophilic microorganisms. Micrococcus. including bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus.
although no taxonomic details were reported Podkovyrov and Zeikus recorded the isolation and purification of a cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase from Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum 39E DNA-DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA partial sequences indicated that the new isolate belongs to the genus Thermococcus and represents a new species. Thermococcus acidaminovorans.Classification Of Alkaliphile Anaerobic alkaliphiles. (144). The first brief report on anaerobic alkaliphiles was communicated by Niimura etal. An outstanding review on anaerobic alkalithermophiles has recently been published by Wiegel .
for example. Extremely alkaline lakes.0 depending on environments such as soda lakes also require high salinity. which is achieved by adding NaCl to the isolation medium. In particular. glutamate. and proline) Other are populated by alkaliphilic representatives of halophilic archaea were not accumulated or used for osmotic balance in place of the sulfotrehalose by these halophilic archaea. Many organisms isolated from10.5 to 12.Classification Of Alkaliphile Haloalkaliphiles The most remarkable examples of naturally occurring alkaline environments are soda deserts and soda lakes. with a consistent pH of alkaline and highly saline the site. Lake Magadi in Kenya and the Wadi Natrun in Egypt. . hypersaline soda lakes common osmolytes (glycine. are probably the most stable highly alkaline environments on Earth. betaine.
Not all of these are produced by alkaliphilic bacteria. These enzymes are commercially available. However. (ii) Dehairing. where dehairing is carried out at pH values between 8 and 10.Applications Of Alkaliphile Industrial applications. and detergent enzymes account for approximately 30% of total worldwide enzyme production. many alkaline proteases have been produced by alkaliphilic Bacillus strains and are commercially available. (i) Detergent additives. The main industrial application of alkaliphilic enzymes is in the detergent industry. Alkaline enzymes have been used in the hide-dehairing process. .
Protease B18′ had a higher optimum pH and temperature. The enzyme was most active toward gelatin on film at pH 10. An interesting application of alkaline protease was developed by Fujiwara and coworkers (35. . around 13.0 and 85°C. 75). They reported the use of an alkaline protease to decompose the gelatinous coating of X-ray films. (iii) Other applications.Applications Of Alkaliphile Industrial applications. 36. from which silver was recovered.
PROCESS OF INDIGO FERMENTATION .
Alkaliphiles require an alkaline pH of 9 or more for their growth and have an optimal growth pH of around 10. .Distribution and isolation of alkaliphiles Alkaliphiles consist of two main physiological groups of microorganisms. alkaliphiles and haloalkaliphiles. whereas haloalkaliphiles require both an alkaline pH (pH 9) and high salinity (up to 33% [wt/vol] NaCl). sometimes even from acidic soil samples and faeces. Alkaliphiles have been isolated mainly from neutral environments.
Alkaliphilic microorganisms coexist with neutrophilic microorganisms. . because alkaliphiles usually require at least some sodium ions. To isolate alkaliphiles. Sodium carbonate is generally used to adjust the pH to around 10.alkaline media must be used.Haloalkaliphiles have been mainly found in extremely alkaline saline environments. such as the Rift Valley lakes of East Africa and the western soda lakes of the United States. as well as occupying speciﬁc extreme environments in nature.
and Streptomyces and eukaryotes such as yeasts and ﬁlamentous fungi. Many different kinds of alkaliphilic microorganisms. Recent studies show that alkaliphilic bacteria have also been found in deep-sea sediments collected from depths up to the 10. which corresponds to 1/10 to 1/100 of the population of the neutrophilic microorganisms. . have been isolated from a variety of environments”.The frequency of alkaliphilic microorganisms in neutral “ordinary” soil samples is 10^2 to 10^5/g of soil.898 m of the Mariana Trench. Pseudomonas. Micrococcus. including bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus.
Distribution of alkaliphilic microorganisms in environments at various pHs .
pH dependency of alkaliphilic microorganisms The typical pH dependency of the growth of neutrophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria is shown by open squares and solid circles respectively .
thus decreasing the overall pH of the cytoplasm. arginine. and histidine). may assist cells to grow in alkaline environments. as a consequence. Particularly rich in amino acids with positively charged side groups (lysine. these cells are able to buffer their cytoplasm in alkaline environments. some cells have been found to contain cytoplasmic pools of polyamines. .Some alkaliphilic bacteria have developed sodium ion channels that actively drive the entry of protons across the membrane. Low membrane permeability is another mode of passive regulation as it ensures that fewer protons move in and out of the cell. • Active regulation.The negative charges on the acidic nonpeptidoglycan components may give the cell surface its ability to adsorb sodium and hydronium ions and repulse hydroxide ions and.In the first instance of passive pH regulation.MECHANISM OF pH REGULATION • Internal pH maintenance is achieved by both active and passive regulation mechanisms • Passive regulation.
taxonomy. alkaline amylases. physiology. . have been put to use on an industrial scale. and genetics of these isolates to establish a new microbiology of alkaliphilic microorganisms. and alkaline cellulases. and some enzymes. ecology. studies have focused on the enzymology. molecular biology. Industrial applications of these microorganisms have also been investigated extensively. such as alkaline proteases.USES Over the past two decades.
.USES Alkaliphiles have clearly gained large amounts of genetic information by evolutionary processes and exhibit an ability in their genes to cope with particular environments. therefore their genes are a potentially valuable source of information waiting to be explored and exploited by the biotechnologists.
more than 1. (ii) mechanisms of membrane transport and pH regulation. . with great potential for microbiology and biotechnological exploitation. and (iii) the taxonomy of alkaliphilic microorganisms. The alkaliphiles are unique microorganisms.Future of alkaliphiles Since the rediscovery of alkaliphilic bacteria. The aspects that have received the most attention in recent years include (i) extracellular enzymes and their genetic analysis.000 papers on many aspects of alkaliphiles and alkaliphily have been published.
Furthermore. alkaliphiles may be very good general genetic resources for such applications as production of signalpeptides for secretion and promoters for hyperproduction of enzymes. biological wood pulping. . and more production of sophisticated enzyme detergents. such as chiralmolecule synthesis.Future of alkaliphiles Alkaline enzymes should ﬁnd additional uses in various ﬁelds of industry.
org/cgi/content/full/63/4/735 http://serc.nlm.nih.wikipedia.ncbi.gov/pmc/articles/PMC98975/ http://mmbr.Reference www.edu/microbelife/extreme/alkaline/ .com http://www.asm.carleton.
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