1
gh
1
=
2
gh
2
+ p
0
p
A
=
2
gh
2

1
gh
1
+ p
0
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2.4 Pressure Measurement
If fluid 1 is gas, further simplification can be made since it can be
assumed that
1
v
2
, thus the term
1
gh
1
is relatively very small
compared to
2
gh
2
and can be omitted with negligible error. Hence, the
gas pressure is:
p
A
~
p
2
=
2
gh
2
 p
0
There is also a closed type of manometer as shown in Fig. 2.9(c), which
can measure pressure difference between two points, A and B. This
apparatus is known as the differential Utube manometer. For this case,
the formula for pressure difference can be derived as followed:
p
2
= p
3
p
A
+
1
gh
1
= p
B
+
3
gh
3
+
2
gh
2
p
A 
p
B
=
3
gh
3
+
2
gh
2

1
gh
1
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2.5 Hydrostatic Forces
If a solid plate is immersed into the fluid, the pressure is also
acted upon the surface of the solid.
This pressure acts on the submerged area thus generating a
kind of resultant force known as hydrostatic force.
Hence, the hydrostatic force is an integration of fluid
pressure on an area.
Similar to pressure, the direction in which the force is acting
is always perpendicular to the surface.
To derive the hydrostatic force for a planar surface, consider
the solid plate shown in Fig. 2.10. For a small elementary
area dA, the force magnitude is:
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2.5 Hydrostatic Forces
If a solid plate is immersed into the fluid, the pressure is also acted upon
the surface of the solid.
dF = pdA
Thus for the entire area A, the total magnitude of resultant force is
F
A
= }
A
( p
0
+ gh) dA
Here, the specific gravity the fluid
g can be taken as constant, which
is valid for liquid, then the
resultant force becomes
F
R
= p
0
A + g }
A
h dA
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2.5 Hydrostatic Forces
From Fig.2.9, a trigonometry relation can be used to represent h, i.e.,
h = y sinu . Knowing that the angle u is constant for a planar surface, then,
the above expression can be written as
F
R
= p
0
A + g sinu }
A
y dA
If C is the centroid for the area A, by using the centroidal relationship, i.e.
}
A
y dA = y
C
A and h
c
= y
c
sinu , then
F
R
= p
0
A + gy
C
A sinu = p
0
A + gh
C
A
For isotropic materials where mass is uniformly distributed, the centroid C
is identical to the centre of gravity CG. Hence, the resultant hydrostatic
force F
R
is a product of pressure p at C and the surface area A, i.e.
F
R
= ( p
0
A + gh
C
)A = p
C
A
In many applications, hydrostatic forces acting on any surfaces such as
walls of a tank are balanced by opposite forces generated by the
atmospheric pressure p
0
time the same surface area A.
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Therefore, based on this reason, we can omit the term p
0
A in Eq. (2.20),
and thus it can be reduced to
F
R
= gh
C
A
The horizontal depth of the center of pressure, y
R
, (along y axis) is given
by:
y
R
= 1
xx
+ y
C
y
C
A
The x coordinate for this point can be derived using moment equilibrium
of the force F
R
about the yaxis at centroid C, and the formula can be
written as followed,
x
R
= 1
xy
+ x
C
y
C
A
where I
xy
is known as the product of inertia. For your convenience,
Table 2.2 shows the formula for centroids and the moments of inertia, I
xx
,
I
yy
and I
xy
, for typical shapes.
2.5 Hydrostatic Forces
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2.5 Hydrostatic Forces
The hydrostatic force is the resultant of a linear distributed force formed
by the liquid pressure acting perpendicular to the surface.
In the case where the surface is a wall of a liquid tank, the pressure
distribution is as illustrated in Fig. 2.11.
Here, the application of Eq. (2.21) leads to the volume of the prism
known as hydrostatic prism, which is generated by the linear distributed
pressure, i.e.
This prism shape can represent
the hydrostatic force for a
partially immersed surface. As
shown in Fig. 2.11, the centre of
pressure CP is actually the
centroid of the prism.
F
R
= volume of prism =
(gh)(bh) = g ( h) A
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2.5 Hydrostatic Forces
For a completely immersed surface, the hydrostatic prism becomes as
shown in Fig. 2.12(a) for vertical surface and Fig. 2.12(b) for inclined
surface, where the cross section of the prism is a trapezium.
For both cases, the hydrostatic force calculated using Eq. (2.21) gives the
volume of the trapezoidal prism, i.e.
All the formula in this
section are derived for the
planar surface with a fixed
angle. However,
hydrostatic forces for
curved surfaces, is out of
the scope of this course.
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Example 2.3
A circular door having a diameter of 4 m is positioned at the inclined wall
as shown in Fig. E2.3(a), which forms part of a large water tank. The
door is mounted on a shaft which acts to close the door by rotating it and
the door is restrained by a stopper. If the depth of the water is 10 m at
the level of the shaft, Calculate:
(a) Magnitude of the hydrostatic
force acting on the door and its
centre of pressure,
(b) The moment required by the
shaft to open the door.
Use water = 998 kg/m
3
and
g = 9.81 m/s
2
.
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(a) The magnitude of the hydrostatic force F
R
is
F
R
= gh
C
A
= (998)(9.81)(10) [ x(4)
2
]
= 1.230 x 10
6
N
= 1.23 MN
For the coordinate system shown in Figure E2.3(b), since circle is a
symmetrical shape, I
xy
= 0, then x
R
= 0. For y coordinate,
y
R
= 1
xx
+ y
C
= tR
4
+ y
C
y
C
A t y
C
R
2
= t (2)
4
+ 10
t (10/sin 60)(2)
2
sin 60
= 11.6 m
or,
Example 2.3
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Example 2.3
y
R
= 1
xx
+ y
C
= t (2)
4
= 0.0866 m
y
C
A t (10/sin 60)(2)
2
(b) Use moment equilibrium EM  0 about the shaft axis. With reference to
Figure E2.3(b), the moment M required to open the door is:
M = F
R
( y
R
 y
C
)
= (1.230 x 10
5
) (0.0866)
= 1.065 x 10
5
N m
= 107 kM m
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2.6 Buoyancy and Stability of Floating
Bodies
This section will cover the interaction of fluid with the
whole mass in a gravitational field which produce another
form of force known as buoyant force, and the field in Fluid
Mechanics which studies the behaviour of floating bodies is
called buoyancy.
Buoyant force can be defined as the resultant fluid force
which acts on a fully submerged or floating body.
To derive the formula for the buoyant force, consider
Fig. 2.13:
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2.6 Buoyancy and Stability of Floating
Bodies
From Fig. 2.13, if a rectangular block ABCD is drawn to cover the body, by
using the force equilibrium in the x and y directions, we should obtain:
EF
x
= 0 : F
3
= F
4
EF
y
= 0 : F
B
= F
3
F
1
W
where W is the weight of
the fluid volume in
ABCD, and FB is the force
exerted by the body to
the fluid.
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If the fluid is incompressible, which is a valid assumption for
liquid, by taking A as the area for the top AB plane and bottom CD
plane and V is the volume of the body, the force equilibrium in the
y direction becomes
F
R
=
g (h
2

h
1
) A  g [(h
2

h
1
) A V ]
F
B
=
g V (2.24)
From Fig. 2.13, by using the principle of force equilibrium, the
fluid force acting onto the body must be of the same magnitude
with the force exerted by the solid to the fluid F
B
, but in the
opposite direction. Hence Eq. (2.24) give the formula for the
buoyant force which is always in upward direction, i.e., opposite
to the weight of the body.
2.6 Buoyancy and Stability of Floating
Bodies
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2.6 Buoyancy and Stability of Floating
Bodies
The relation also shows that the buoyant force is equal to the weight of
the volume of fluid which is displaced by the body.
The point of action for this is the centroid of the displaced fluid, which is
also called the centre of buoyancy CB.
The difference between the centre of buoyancy and the centre of gravity
of the floating body CG may lead to stability issue.
In general, a body in equilibrium may be in two possible positions, as
shown in Fig. 2.14 for a completely submerged body:
(a) Stable equilibrium a small displacement causing it to return to
its original position.
(b) Unstable equilibrium a small displacement causing it to shift
to another position.
Hence, it can be concluded that for a completely submerged body where
W > FB, the restoring moment produced causes the body to return to its
stable condition, and as a result, the centre of buoyancy CB should be
always lower than the centre of gravity CG.
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Summary
This chapter has summarized on the aspect below:
Should be able to understand the principle of hydrostatics,
The conditions of standard atmosphere, and consequently be
able to distinguish between absolute and gauge pressure
readings.
Should also be able to apply this knowledge in calculation of
pressure measured using manometers, in evaluating the
hydrostatic force acted onto a planar surface and locating the
corresponding centre of pressure, as well as in evaluating the
buoyant force exerted to a submerged or floating body and
locating the corresponding centre of buoyancy.
In addition, you should also be able to analyse the stability of a
body immersed in fluid.
This concludes the scope of this course for fluid static.
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Thank You