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International Supply Chain Management

Submitted to: Mr. J. Taluja


Submitted By:

Kanishk Kalanoria Gourav Goyal Nilanjan Nandi

Logistics
Logistics is the part of the supply chain process that plans, implements, and controls the efficient, effective forward and reverse flow and storage of goods, services, and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet customers requirements.
Source: Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals

Supply Chain Management


Supply Chain Management encompasses the planning and management of all activities involved in sourcing and procurement, conversion, and all Logistics Management activities. Importantly, it also includes coordination and collaboration with channel partners, which can be suppliers, intermediaries, third-party service providers, and customers. In essence, Supply Chain Management integrates supply and demand management within and across companies.
Source: Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals

International Logistics
International Logistics is the process of planning, implementing, and controlling the flow and storage of goods, services, and related information from a point of origin to a point of consumption located in a different country.

Logistics and SCM


Inclusionist Evolutionist Intersectionist

SCM

Logistics Logistics

Logistics

SCM

Three different perspectives on the relationship between Logistics and Supply Chain Management. The inclusionist perception is the prevailing one today.

The International Supply Chain


Suppliers Domestic/Impo rt Sourcing Order Processing Inbound Materials Order Processing Corporation Throughflow Outbound Materials Order Processing Transportation Physical Materials Distribution Management Management Customers

Domestic/Export Distribution Order Placement

Supplier-Firm Interface Transportation Transportation

Transportatio n Costumer-Firm Interface Physical Customer Distribution Service Management Inventory Management
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Storage

Storage

Inventory Management

Storage

Inventory Management

Forward and Reverse Flow of Information, Products, and Funds

Elements of International Supply Chain


The environment in which international logisticians operate is quite different from the domestic environment. The decisions regarding international transportation are much more complicated than domestic transportation. The number of intermediaries involved is greater.

The inherent risks and hazards of international transportation are much more significant.
International insurance is much more complex. International means of payment are more complicated. Terms of trade are more complicated. The crossing of borders represents specific challenges.

Transportation Infrastructure
A firms logistics platform is determined by a locations ease and convenience of market reach under favorable cost circumstances. The public sectors investment priorities, safety regulations, tax incentives, and transport policies can have major effects on the logistics decisions of firms. The logistics manager must learn about existing and planned infrastructures abroad and at home and factor them into the firms strategy.

Vessels Used in Ocean Shipping


Liner Service

Bulk Service

Tramp Service

Airfreight
Airfreight is available to and from most countries, including the developing world. International airfreight is expected to grow to 190 billion tons in 2005, compared to only 70 billion tons in 1995. Forty percent of the worlds manufactured travel by air. Items that are high-value or high in density tend to travel by air.

Considerations for Selecting a Mode of Transport


Transit Time

Predictability

Cost

Non-economic Factors 11

Export Documentation
A bill of lading is a contract between the exporter and the carrier indicating that the carrier has accepted responsibility for the goods and will provide transportation in return for payment. A commercial invoice is a bill for the goods stating basic information about the transaction, including a description of the merchandise, total cost of the goods sold, addresses of the shipper and seller, and delivery and payment terms. A freight forwarder specializes in handling export documentation.

International Inventory Issues


Inventories tie up a major portion of corporate funds, therefore proper inventory policies should be a major concern to the international logistician. Just-in-time inventory policies minimize the volume of inventory by making it available only when needed. The purpose of establishing inventory systems are: to maintain product movement in the delivery pipeline to have a cushion to absorb demand fluctuations
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Three Factors that Decide the Level of Inventory


Order Cycle Time
Desired Customer Service Levels Use of Inventories as a Strategic Tool

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International Packaging Issues


Packaging is instrumental in getting the merchandise to the destination in a safe, presentable condition. Because of the added stress of international shipping, packaging that is adequate for domestic shipping may be inadequate for international shipping. Packaging considerations that should be taken into account are environmental conditions and weight. One solution to the packaging problem has been the development of inter-modal containers. Cost attention must be paid to international packaging.
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Storage Facilities
A stationary period is involved when merchandise becomes inventory stored in warehouses. The location decision addresses how many distribution centers to have and where to locate them. Storage facilities abroad can differ in availability and quality. The logistician should analyze international product sales and then rank order products according to warehousing needs.
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Special Trade Zones


Foreign trade zones are areas where foreign goods may be held or processed and then re-exported without incurring duties.

Trade zones can be useful as transshipment points to reduce logistics cost and redesign marketing approaches.
Governments and firms benefit from foreign trade zones.
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Export Processing Zones and Economic Zones


In export processing zones, special rules apply that are different in other regions of the country. These zones usually provide tax-free and duty-free treatment for production facilities whose output is destined abroad. The maquiladoras of Mexico are one example of a program that permits firms to take advantage of sharp differentials in labor costs. Through the creation of special economic zones, the Chinese government has attracted many foreign investors bringing in millions of dollars.
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Centralized Logistics Management


In international logistics, the existence of a headquarters staff that retains decision-making power over logistics is important. To avoid internal problems, both headquarters staff and local management should report to one person. This individual can contribute an objective view when inevitable conflicts arise in international logistics coordination.
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Decentralized Logistics Management


When a firm serves many diverse international markets, total centralization might leave the firm unresponsive to local adaptation needs. If each subsidiary is made a profit center in itself, each one carries the full responsibility for its performance. Once products are within a specific market, increased input from local logistics operations should be expected and encouraged.
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Outsourcing Logistics Services


The systematic outsourcing of logistics capabilities is a third option. By collaborating with transportation firms, private warehouses, or other specialists, corporate resources can be concentrated on the firms core product. One-stop logistics allows shippers to buy all the transportation modes and functional services from a single carrier.

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The Supply Chain and the Internet


Because of the internet, firms are able to conduct many more global comparisons among suppliers and select from a wider variety of choices. When customers have the ability to access a company through the internet, the company must be prepared for 24-hour order-taking and customer service. For all countries, but particularly in developing nations, the issue of universal access to the internet is crucial.
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Logistics and Security


After the terrorist attacks of 2001, companies have to deal with the fact that the pace of international transactions has slowed down and that formerly routine steps will now take longer. Logistics systems and modern transportation systems are often the targets of attacks. The need to institute new safeguards for international shipments will affect the ability of firms to efficiently plan their international shipments.
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Logistics and the Environment


Since environmental laws and regulations differ across the globe, the firms efforts need to be responsive to a wide variety of requirements. Reverse distribution systems are instrumental in ensuring that the firm not only delivers the product to the market, but also can retrieve it from the market for subsequent use, recycling, or disposal. Companies need to learn how to simultaneously achieve environmental and economic goals.
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