Why measure pressure?

4 Common Reasons

Safety
 prevent pressurized pipes & vessels from bursting

Process Efficiency
 variation of pressure below or above a set-point will result in scrap rather

than useable product in some manufacturing process

Cost Saving
 preventing unnecessary expense of creating more pressure or vacuum than is

required saves money

Inferred Measurement of Other Variables
   

rate of flow through a pipe level of fluid in a tank density of fluid how two or more liquids in a tank interface

2

Weight = 100lb 1 sq ins 100 sq ins

100 sq ins

1 sq ins

Pressure = 1lb/in²

Pressure = 100 lb/in²

3

LIQUIDS The pressure exerted by a liquid is influenced by 3 main factors. 1. 2. 3. The height of the liquid. The density of the liquid. The pressure on the surface of the liquid.

GASES The pressure exerted by a gas is influenced by 2 main factors.
1. 2. Volume of the gas container. Temperature of the gas

Note. Gases are compressible whereas liquids are not

4

mm water gauge mm H2O ins.5951 g/cm³.6959psi) 5 . mercury mm mercury Atmosphere in Hg mm Hg atm Pressure applied by a 1 inch column of mercury with a density of 13.000 Pa Units referenced to columns of liquids ins. P = F/A Examples of pressure units: Units of force per unit area Pascals Pa N / m2 (Newtons / square metre) psi lbs/in2 (Pounds / square inch) Bar Bar = 100. Pressure exerted by the earth’s atmosphere at sea level (approximately 14.Pressure terminology Engineering Units Pressure is defined as FORCE applied over a unit AREA. water gauge in H2O Pressure applied by a 1 inch column of water at 20°C.

no mass Typical atm reference: 14.Gage reading vacuum as negative value Differential(psid) .Pressure terminology Reference Pressure Absolute Gage Compound Range Barometric Range Atmospheric Pressure Approx.Level of pressure relative to atmospheric – Positive or negative in magnitude Absolute(psia) .difference in pressure between two points 6 .73 psia Compound Range (psig) . 14.based from zero absolute pressure .7 psia Pressure Total Vacuum (Zero Absolute) Gage(psig) .

4. Vacuum Absolute pressure below atmospheric pressure ( a compound range gage transmitter will read a negative pressure) 7 .Pressure terminology Measurable Pressures The four most common types of measurable pressures used in the process control industries are: 1. Vapor Pressure The temperature at which a liquid boils. Static Pressure. or turns into a vapor varies depending on the pressure. HEAD PRESSURE = HEIGHT x DENSITY 2. or Working pressure Pressure exerted in a closed system 3. The higher the pressure. Line Pressure. the higher the boiling point. Head Pressure or Hydrostatic Pressure. Pressure exerted by a column of liquid in a tank open to atmosphere.

Inferring non-pressure variables Flow Line Pressure Orifice Plate Flow Restriction in Line cause a differential Pressure QV= K DP 9 .

Inferring non-pressure variables Flow Theoritical equations come from 3 sources: Qm= K Continuity Equation  DP Flow into pipe equals flow out of pipe and is the same at all pipe cross sections (Conservation of Mass) Bernoulli’s Equation  (Conservation of Energy for fluid in a pipe) Experimentally Determined Correction Factors   Discharge Coefficient Gas Expansion Factor 10 .

Inferring non-pressure variables Flow Quiz: If an orifice plate creates a differential of 50 kPa at 50m³/s (i) What would be the differential at 10m³/s? Qv = K DP Qv1 --Qv2 DP1 = ---DP2 (ii) What would be the flow rate at 25kPa differential? Qv = K DP Qv1 --Qv2 DP1 = ---DP2 50/10 = DP2 = 50/ DP2 10kPa 50/Qv2 = 50/ 25 Qv2 = 25m³/s 13 .

Inferring non-pressure variables Level Hydrostatic Pressure . Unit Area (eg.The liquid will rise to the same level in each vessel regardless of its diameter & shape. per cm2) Liquid H P P D P P Which shape gives higher pressure at the bottom of the vessel? Similar height of column will have same mass acting on the same unit area SAME PRESSURE 14 .

= 1.2? Height = Phead / S. s.g.Inferring non-pressure variables Level Quiz: Open Tank What is the level if Pmax = 120 inH2O.2 Tx ? Height = 100 inches L H 17 .G Height = 120 / 1.

due to low vapor pressure of Hg.Pressure measurement technology Pressure Gauges Barometer Used to measure Barometric Pressure Reference is 0 psia. General operating principle: • Tube completely filled with mercury & Invert into the container filled with mercury. • This equilibrium height is a measure of atmospheric pressure. P =P head atm Patm Phead Barometric Pressure = Atmospheric Pressure What is the barometric Pressure? 29.9 inHg 18 . • The mercury level in the tube will drop until it reaches an equilibrium.

one side measured pressure H How to check for dP ?  dP = H (SGfill fluid . non process control 19 .SGprocess fluid) Reference side can be:  Sealed (AP reference)  Open to atmosphere(GP reference)  Connected to reference pressure(DP reference)  Typically used for low pressures.Pressure measurement technology Pressure Gauges Manometers U-tube with one side reference.

20 . The displacement may be converted into electrical signal with help of Linear Variable Displacement Transformer (LVDT).Pressure measurement technology Pressure Gauges Mechanical The mechanical element techniques convert applied pressure into displacement.

20 mA. etc.Electronic sensor module that registers process variable and outputs a corresponding usable electrical signal eg.Pressure measurement technology Electronic Pressure Transmitters  Made up of 2 main elements:  Transducer . 4 .Convert transducer output to a standard output signal eg. resistance. etc. capacitance. 22 . digital signal. millivolts.  Electronics .5 V dc. 1 .

Signal To Controller Transmitter Sensing Diaphragm Signal from sensor module (Transducer) (Line / Static Pressure) Process Variable What will be the output current at 25 psi reading? 4 + (25/50)*16 = 12 mA 23 .Pressure measurement technology Electronic Pressure Transmitters (Standard signals) Example of Application Transmitter configured to operate from: 0 to 50 psi Electronic Output: 4 to 20 mA This mean 0% reading (0 psi) represents 4 mA and 100% reading (50 psi) represents 20 mA.

Pressure measurement technology Electronic Pressure Sensor Modules Characterized by the type of sensing element:  Variable capacitance  Variable Resistance (Wheatstone bridge)  Strain gauge  Thin -film strain gauge  Diffused. strain gauge  Variable inductance  Variable reluctance  Piezoelectric 24 .

Pressure measurement technology Electronic Pressure Sensor Modules Variable Capacitance  Process pressure transmitted thru isolating diaphragm  Distortion of sensing diaphragm proportional to the differential pressure  Position of sensing diaphragm detected by capacitor plates  Differential capacitance translated to 4-20mA or 10-50mA output dc signal. 25 .

Pressure measurement technology Electronic Pressure Sensor Modules Variable Resistance / Piezo-Resistive  Process pressure transmitted thru isolating diaphragm  Very small distortion in sensing diaphragm  Applies strain to a wheatstone bridge circuit  Change in resistance translated to 4-20mA or 1-5V dc signal Thin Film Strain Gauge Diffused Strain Gauge 26 .

Pressure measurement technology Electronic Pressure Sensor Modules Piezoelectric • Piezoelectric crystal is a natural or a synthetic crystal that produces a voltage when pressure is applied to it. Piezoelectric Crystal Control Signal Process Pressure Diaphragm Amplifier & electronics 27 . • The produced small voltage is then amplified to a standard control signal. • Voltage produce by crystal increases with increases in pressure and vice-versa.

Pressure measurement technology Electronic Pressure Sensor Modules Variable Inductance • Inductance is the opposition to a change in current flow • Alternating current pass through the coil • Elastic element connected to core • Applied pressure deflects elastic element • Position of core changes relative to coil resulting in change in inductance • Resistor connected in series with inductor to measure change in voltage. 28 .

Pressure measurement technology Electronic Pressure Sensor Modules Variable Reluctance  Reluctance is a property of magnetic      circuit A moving magnetic element located between two coils Coil turn electromagnet when excited by AC source Position of element with respect to the coils determines differential magnetic reluctance Thus differential inductance within the coils A bridge is used to measure changes in a circuit 29 .

C2 30 .PLOW  C1 . Sensing Diaphragm Capacitor Plate  Fill Fluid  Rigid Isolation (Glass) High Side Low Side Sensor Diaphragm PHIGH .Capacitance Sensor  Lead Wires  Sensing element is really two capacitor plates with a common sensing diaphragm Process pressure is transmitted through the fill fluid to the center of the sensor Sensing diaphragm deflects proportional to differential pressure Differential capacitance is measured electrically through leads inside sensor.

Piezo-Resistive Sensor Sealed Reference Insulated layer vacuum PRESSURE  Piezoresistive silicon sensor using a patented Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Sensor is a Wheatstone bridge circuit made from silicon resistors diffused on a silicon substrate Wheatstone Bridge is on the diaphragm  Silicon Backing Etched Single Crystal Wafer Silicon Wafer   Applied pressure deflects diaphragm and resistance of the resistors closer to the diaphragm center change  Unbalanced bridge outputs mV signal proportional to applied pressure 31 .

Reference Pressure Capacitive Sensor Piezo-Resistive Sensor Sealed Vacuum Differential High Side Low Side Absolute P2 P1 P1 Vented to Atmosphere Gage High Side Gage Vented to Atmosphere P1 P1 32 .

33 . (Attenuation)  Output Electronics in the transmitter translates the useable electrical signal from the sensor into a standard output signal.  Sensor will become active only when the transmitter is powered.Pressure measurement technology Electronic Pressure Sensor Modules Output Electronics Output Electronics Sensor Module Diaphragm Seal Sensor Module  Sensor (transducer) module is part of the transmitter.

Range = 11 to 55”H2O 34 .1*10” = 11”H2O Tx 40” Head2 10” H 20mA pt? (at 100% level) Head1 0% GP = Head2 = 1.Open Vessel Level Calculation Example: What is the Calibration Range? 100% (at 0% level) 4mA pt? GP = Head1 = 1.1 Cal.1*50” = 55 ”H2O L S.G = 1.

Transmitter Overview Standard current or voltage signal (ANALOG) Standard current or voltage & digital signals (SMART) Only high speed digital signals (FIELDBUS) Output Signal Transmitter Analog/Smart/Fieldbus Electronics (To translate useable electrical signal to standard electrical signal) Input Signal Transducer Sensing element + Electrical Circuitry (To convert mechanical to useable electrical signal) 35 Process Pressure .

Types of Transmitter Outputs  Analog Transmitters  Pure Analog Signal  4-20 mA or 1-5V or 3-15 psi pneumatic signal  Smart Transmitters  Digital communication (diagnostic signal) superimposed on analog signal (4-20 mA or 1-5V)  Profibus Transmitters  High Speed Digital signal only  Foundation Fieldbus Transmitters  High Speed Digital signal only  Control in the Field functionality 36 .

Output = 4-20 mA current signal only 37 .Analog Transmitter Overview  Analog transmitter is made up of two basic component: » Sensor Module » Analog Electronics  Signal from sensor module is amplified & translated into standard current or voltage signal by the electronics Pressure Input Signal Pressure Transducer Sensor Signal Conditioning Capacitance / mV Signal Zero Standard Output Signal Span Eg).

Sensor Circuit Board Sensor Block PV uF Signal Conditioning Zero Pot set 4 mA 4-20 mA Amplified value Current Only Signal Output set 20 mA value Span Pot Loop wire pair (Power Cable) 38 Cable Link Transducer Output Electronics .How Analog Transmitters Works ? Sensor registers process variable. Sensor board outputs a corresponding electrical signal to output electronics. Signal conditioned & translated to a standard current signal Zero & Span Pots are used to set operating range.

5 mA Freq. Shift Binary Status ® 1200 Hz 2200 Hz “1” “0” 20 mA 1200 Hz 2200Hz HART protocol uses a frequency shift keying based on Bell 202 physical layer to superimpose digital communication on to the 4 .20 mA current loop.HART Protocol Highway Addressable Remote Transducer • An open protocol » Users are not locked into a single supplier +0. Analog Output representing process variable Average modulating current signal is “ZERO” Digital Communications 4 mA Therefore HART protocol does NOT affect 4-20 mA signal (HART Protocol) 39 .5 mA 0 mA –0.

Mounting Configurations Gas Service Mounting Configuration Condensate fall back into the pipe/process Thermal isolation by filling condensate Steam Service Gas Service Slope Slope 1 inch per foot 1 inch per foot Liquid Service Vapor will rise back into the pipe/ process 40 .