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Chapter 1 Introduction

INTRODUCTION

**3 key words: Excitation, network and response
**

**Network – Any structure containing interconnected elements.
**

Circuit –physical structure constructed from electrical components

Network analysis:

o

**Determining the response given the excitation and the network .
**

To design the network given the excitation and the desired response .

Excitation Network Response

Network synthesis:

o

.1. These signals are a function of time and frequency. excitation and response are given in terms of voltages and currents. We use transforms (Fourier and Laplace) to transform from time domain to frequency domain and vice versa.1 SIGNAL ANALYSIS For electric networks.

HOW A SIGNAL IS DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF BOTH FREQUENCY AND TIME Example: s (t ) Ao Sin( wot o ) .

2 NETWORK ANALYSIS Characterization of the excitation and response is only half of the problem. . The other half is describing the network.1.

e.BASIC DEFINITIONS Linear system A network is linear if and only if c1e1(t) System c1r1(t) c2r2(t) System c2e2(t) c1e1(t) +c2e2(t) System c1r1(t)+c2r2(t) i. if it satisfies proportionality the principle of superposition and .

the relation between excitation and response remains the same. No voltages or currents appear between any two terminals before excitation is applied.BASIC DEFINITIONS Passive A linear network is passive if a) b) The energy delivered is non negative for any excitation. . Reciprocal A network is said to be reciprocal if when the point of excitation and response are interchanged.

such as a diode.3798A I = 0.3397A The inclusion of controlled sources or active elements may also destroy reciprocity. destroys reciprocity .35294A Non-linear element I = 0.RECIPROCITY EXAMPLE I= 0. A non-bilateral element.

. a network that doesn’t contain time variant components.BASIC DEFINITIONS Causal A network is causal if the response is zero before any excitation.e. e(t ) 0 for t T then r (t ) 0 for t T Time invariant A network is time invariant if e(t ) r (t ) then e(t T ) r (t T ) i.

IDEAL MODELS The following ideal models are useful in signal processing Amplifier Differentiator Integrator Time Delay r (t ) ke(t ) d r (t ) e(t ) dt r (t ) e(t )dt r (t ) e(t T ) .

IDEAL ELEMENTS The elements encountered most are resistor. capacitor and inductor. When the currents and voltages are given as a function of time v(t ) Ri(t ) di(t ) v(t ) L dt t 1 v(t ) i ( x)dx v(0) C0 Resistor Inductor Capacitor .

IDEAL ELEMENTS In frequency domain. using Laplace transform .

.

we are given the excitation and response and we are required to synthesize the network from the system function. drawn or variables measured.1. A port is defined as any pair of two terminals into which energy is supplied. . R( s) H (s) E ( s) The end points of elements are called terminals.3 NETWORK SYNTHESIS In network synthesis.

A driving point impedance is thus given as V (s) Z (s) I ( s) .DRIVING POINT SYNTHESIS and Deriving point immittance: the excitation response are taken from the same port.

Z 21 ( s ) V2 ( s ) I1 ( s ) V2 ( s ) H (s) V1 ( s ) .TWO PORT NETWORK Transfer function: excitation and response are taken from different ports. The transfer function can take different forms.

FILTER DESIGN One of the most important aspect of transfer function synthesis. Ideal Low pass filter . A filter is defined as a network that passes a certain portion of a frequency and blocks the remainder of the spectrum.

Two aspects of filter design Obtaining a suitable and realizable transmittance H(s) given the specification. 2.FILTER DESIGN 1. Realizing the transmittance H(S). .

. Because there are no ideal filters.FILTER DESIGN The first step is an approximation step.

End! .

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