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FOR EVERYTHING THERE IS SEASON, AND A TIME FOR EVERY MATTER UNDER HEAVEN:
A time to be born, and a time to die; A time to plant, and a time to pluck up what is planted; A time to kill, and a time to heal; A time to breakdown, and a time to build up; A time to weep, and a time to laugh; A time to mourn, and a time to dance; A time to cast away stones, and a time to gather stones together; A time to embrace, and a time to refrain from embracing; A time to seek, and a time to lose; A time to keep, and a time to cast away; A time to rend, and a time to sew; A time to keep silence, and a time to speak; A time to love, and a time to hate; A time for war, and a time for peace. What gain has the worker from this toil?
LEADERSHIP IN NURSING .
LEADERSHIP • Is the process of PERSUASION and EXAMPLE by which an individual induces a group to take action that is in accord with the leader’s purposes or the shared purposes of all. .
. giving them the experience to attain the common objectives and satisfaction with the type of leadership provided.LEADERSHIP • A process of influence on a group in a particular situation. at a given point in time. and in a specific set of circumstances that stimulate people to strive willingly to attain organizational objectives.
Manager Vs. Leader Manager Appointed and Have Formal Authority Leader May Have Managerial Authority and Influence Others .
Can anyone be a leader? .
Is leadership always necessary? .
HOW SHOULD A NURSE LEAD? .
• 2. This person believes that the behavior being asked is consistent with personal interests and values.CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP: • 1. • 3. This person believes it is consistent with the purposes and values of the organization. . A person receiving a communication understands it. • 4. This person has the resources to do what is being asked in the communication.
• 2. The CHARACTERISTICS of a LEADER. NEEDS. and other PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS of the FOLLOWERS. • 3. and POLITICAL MILIEU .MAJOR VARIABLES IN LEADERSHIP • 1. The ATTITUDES. The SOCIAL. ECONOMIC. The CHARACTERISTICS of the ORGANIZATION • 4.
CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERSHIP Co-existence with follower ship Responsibility Understanding nature Precedence Situation .
Co-existence with Followership a leader cannot exist without followers existing. .
.Responsibility A leader is expected to assume full responsibility in all situations.
.Understanding Nature An important characteristic feature of leadership is its nature to understand the feelings and problems of the group as a whole as well as the individuals.
.Precedence Since the leader influences the behavior and the activities of the followers he should be endowed with the technical competence and personality traits.
.Situation Leadership patterns changes according to the type of group and the situation in which the group is operating.
Co-ordination . Creating confidence 5. Building morale 6. Initiates action 2. Motivation 3. Builds work environment 7. Providing guidance 4.IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP 1.
Initiates action •Leader communicates the policies and plans to the subordinates from where the work actually starts. .
.economic rewards and thereby gets the work from the subordinates.Motivation •A leader motivates the employees with economic and non.
Providing guidance A leader guides by instructing the subordinates the way they have to perform their work effectively and efficiently. .
It is also important to hear the employees with regards to their complaints and problems. explaining them clearly their role and giving them guidelines to achieve the goals effectively.Creating confidence Confidence is an important factor which can be achieved through expressing the work efforts to the subordinates. .
.Building morale A leader can be a morale booster by achieving full co-operation so that they perform with best of their abilities as they work to achieve goals.
.Builds work environment Management is getting things done from people. An efficient work environment helps in sound and stable growth.He should listen to his subordinates problems and solve them. He should treat employees on humanitarian terms.
This synchronization can be achieved through proper and effective co-ordination which should be primary motive of a leader. .Co-ordination Co-ordination can be achieved through reconciling personal interests with organizational goals.
Elements of Leadership • • • • • • VISION INFLUENCE POWER AUTHORITY RESPONSIBILITY ACCOUNTABILITY .
leaders must communicate the vision the their followers in such a way that the followers adopt the vision as their own • It is essential for organizational effectiveness and success . • For leadership to occur.VISION • Provides direction to the influence process.
INFLUENCE • Ability to obtain followers. compliance or request • It is a skill that can be developed . and is one of a major components of the power triangle .
organizational and social strength • Ability to impose the will of one person or group to bring about certain behaviors in other groups or persons .POWER • Ability to efficiently and effectively exercise authority and control through personal.
Sources of POWER Reward power: based on the inducements in exchange for cooperation Source: ability to grant favor e. pay. lay off . promotion.g.g. privileges Coercive power: ability to punish Source: fear e. recognition. formal reprimands. withdrawing friendship. withholding pay rises & promotion.
Source: knowledge & skills . reputation. or charisma Source: Association with others Expert power: competence. special knowledge or expertise in a given area. attractiveness.Legitimate power: based on leader's position Source: position Referent power: based on respect.
AUTHORITY • Represents the right to expect or secure compliance • Authority is backed by legitimacy .
RESPONSIBILITY • Corresponding obligation and accountability for all actions done • Ability to do assigned task • Responsibilities fall into 2 categories: individual and organizational .
ACCOUNTABILITY • Is answering for the result of one’s actions or omissions. • It is a form of reckoning. good or bad . where one accepts the consequences of their decisions.
GREAT MAN THEORY 2. BEHAVIORAL THEORY 4. SITUATIONAL THEORY 5. MOTIVATIONAL THEORY 6. TRANSACTIONAL THEORY 8. TRAIT THEORY 3. INTERACTIONAL THEORY 7. PATH GOAL THEORY 10. TRANSFORMATIONAL THEORY 9. CHARISMATIC THEORY .LEADERSHIP THEORIES 1.
GREAT MAN THEORY
• This theory assumes that the capacity for leadership is inherent, that great leaders are born not made • These theories portray great leaders as heroic, mythic and destined to rise leadership when needed
According to this theory, leaders are gifted with certain qualities that developed and show in their ability to get along with people, persuade them in the course of action, have forceful personalities, posses integrity, and are efficient in their work.
• Traits that are related to leadership effectiveness:
Intelligence traits - knowledge, judgment, decisiveness. Personality traits - adaptability, creativity, integrity, etc. Ability traits – ability to enlist cooperation, popularity, prestige, etc.
INTELLIGENT 2. CREATIVITY 4. PARTICIPATE IN SOCIAL ACTIVITIES . COMMUNICATION 6. INITIATIVE 3. EMOTIONAL MATURITY 5. PERSUASION 7. PERCEPTIVE ENOUGH 8.COMMON LEADERSHIP TRAITS • • • • • • • • 1.
CHARISMA 3. PROBLEM-SOLVING 15. COMMUNICATION 5. RELATIONSHIPS 16. TEACHABILITY 21. DISCERNMENT 8. COURAGE 7. FOCUS 9. Maxwell) • • • • • • • • • • 1. LISTENING 12. RESPONSIBILITY 17. VISION . SECURITY 18. SERVANTHOOD 20. SELF-DISCIPLINE 19. INITIATIVE 11. GENEROSITY 10.21 INDISPENSABLE QUALITIES OF A LEADER (John C. COMPETENCE 6. COMMITMENT 4. CHARACTER 2. PASSION 13. POSITIVE ATTITUDE 14.
concerned with what leaders to and act than who the leader is Actions of the leaders and not their mental qualities or traits make them leaders „great leaders are made not born‟ .
SITUATIONAL THEORY • The skill with which you apply the three (3) basic tools of leadership: – AUTOCRATIC – DEMOCRATIC – FREE-REIN .
.The AUTOCRAT • Centralize authority • An individual who has little trust in group members • Believes that MONEY is the only reward that will motivate workers • Issues orders to be fulfilled with no questions asked.
.The LAISSEZ-FAIRE LEADER • Has little or no self-confidence in his of her leadership ability. • Sets no goals for the group • Minimizes communication and group interaction • Characterized by low concern for people and tasks or production because the leader does not take leadership role.
The DEMOCRAT LEADER • Delegates authority to others • Shares decision making with the group members • Explains to the group reasons for personal decisions when necessary • Objectively communicates criticism and praise to subordinates .
.MOTIVATIONAL THEORY • Maslow’s theory of motivation that is based on a holistic-dynamic theory.
INTERACTIONAL THEORY • Signifies an interaction between the person and situation. .
TRANSACTIONAL THEORY • Emphasizes relationship between leaders and followers • Examines the mutual benefit from an exchange-based relationship • Leader offers certain things like rewards or resources. in return leaders get followers’ commitment or acceptance of leader’s authority (extrinsic motivation) .
TRANSFORMATIONAL THEORY • In contrast to Transactional (extrinsic motivation) this theory emphasizes intrinsic motivation • Emphasis on commitment rather than compliance from the followers • Transformational leader – proactive and innovative visionary. .
PATH GOAL THEORY 1. task goals. and paths to resolve goals. This includes being friendly to subordinates and sensitive to their needs. Achievement-oriented Leadership: The leader emphasizes the achievement of difficult tasks and the importance of excellent performance and simultaneously displays confidence that subordinates will perform well. Directive Leadership: The leader explains the performance goal and provides specific rules and regulations to guide subordinates toward achieving it. 3. . Participative Leadership: The leader consults with subordinates about work. 2. 4. This leadership style involves sharing information as well as consulting with subordinates before making decisions. Supportive Leadership: The leader displays personal concern for subordinates.
Leadership in Organizations (Englewood Cliffs. Yukl. .J. 146-152.Path-Goal Situations & Preferred Leader Behavior Source: Adapted from Gary A. N. 1981).: Prentice-Hall.
CHARISMATIC THEORY The ability to inspire Motivate people to do more than they would normally do Tend to be less predictable than transactional leaders Create an atmosphere of change May be obsessed by visionary ideas .
TWO CLASSES OF LEADERS • FORMAL LEADER • INFORMAL LEADER .
FORMAL LEADER • Holds a position in an organization either by election or by appointment. .
INFORMAL LEADER • Emerges in an informal group and the one seen by the group as most capable of satisfying its needs. .
The seven (7) C’s of Leadership • • • • • • • COMPETENCE CHARACTER COMMITMENT COMMUNICATION CAPACITY FOR LISTENING CAPABILITY FOR LEADERSHIP PRESENCE CHARISMA AND PASSION .
LIKERT’S LEADERSHIP SYSTEM • 2. LEADERSHIP GRID: A 2D model .LEADERSHIP SYSTEMS • 1.
AUTHORITATIVE LEADERSHIP – EXPLOITATIVE-AUTHORITATIVE – BENEVOLENT – AUTHORITATIVE • 2. PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP – CONSULTATIVE-DEMOCRATIC – PARTICIPATIVE-DEMOCRATIC .LIKERT’S LEADERSHIP SYSTEM • 1.
ego.EXPLOITATIVE AUTHORITATIVE BENEVOLENT CONSULATATIVE AUTHORITATIVE DEMOCRATIC PARTICIPATIVE DEMOCRATIC Top management makes ALL DECISIONS Motivation by COERCION Top management SOME makes MOST DELEGATED DECISIONS DECISIONS made at lower levels Motivation by ECONOMIC and EGO motives Motivation by economic. and OTHER MOTIVES Decision making DISPERSED throughout organization Motivation by ECONOMIC REWARDS established by group participation Communication down. up and WITH PEERS Communication DOWNWARD Communication mostly DOWNWARD Communication DOWN and UP .
The Managerial Grid .
• Autocratic or Authoritarian • Democratic or Participative • Bureaucratic • Laissez-Faire. Permissive or Free reign .
. .AUTHORITARIAN (AUTOCRATIC) I want both of you to. .
. with the leader making decisions and using power to command and control others.AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP • It involves CENTRALIZED DECISION MAKING.
Autocratic or Authoritarian Leadership Style Style: Decision is made WITHOUT ANY FORM OF CONSULTAION Rely on threats and punishment to influence employees Do NOT TRUST subordinates NO SUBORDINATE input Leader Characteristics: Concerns with TASK ACCOMPLISHMENT rather than relationships Uses DIRECTIVE behavior Exercises POWER with COERSION Makes decisions ALONE Expects RESPECT & OBEDIENCE of staff .
Autocratic or Authoritarian Leadership Style INEFFECTIVE when subordinates: become tense. high turnover and absenteeism and work stoppage EFFECTIVE when: Employees do not respond to any other leadership style There is high-volume production There is limited time to make a decision A manager’s power is challenged by an employee . or resentful expect to have their opinions heard have low morale. fearful.
. . .PARTICIPATIVE (DEMOCRATIC) Let's work together to solve this.
DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP • This leadership style is participatory. with authority DELEGATED to others. .
Participative/Democratic Leadership Style Leader Characteristics: Concerns with human relations & teamwork Fosters open & twoway communication Recognizes and encourages achievement .
LAISSEZ FAIRE (DELEGATIVE) You two take care of the problem while I go… .
LAISSEZ-FAIRE LEADERSHIP • This leadership style is PASSIVE and permissive and the leader defers decision making. .
such as staff specialists or consultants • It makes employees feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager. • Leaders are ungrateful . INEFFECTIVE when… trustworthy Utilizing outside experts. experienced. and educated.Laissez Faire Leadership Style EFFECTIVE when EMPLOYEES are: highly skilled.
irrespective of his position within the heirarchy.BUREAUCRATIC LEADERSHIP • The bureaucrat acts as a representative of the power and prestige of the entire structure. .
Bureaucratic Leadership Style Style: Everything is done according to procedure or policy Leader Characteristics: manages “by the book” Exercises power by exercising fixed rules Tends to relate impersonally to staff .
WHAT LEADERSHIP STYLE IS USUALLY APPLIED IN PHILIPPINE SETTING?
• Endure misunderstanding and suffering instead of seeking honor and glory • Show initiative when people are apathetic
Filipino Styles of Leadership
• Paternalistic Style and more professional style of leadership and management.
Utang na loob 3. Bata system 8. Pakikisama 4. Amor propio 2. Hiya 5. Lakad system 7. Personalism .IMPACT OF VALUES AND BEHAVIOR ON FILIPINO LEADERSHIP • • • • • • • • 1. Galang 6.
DESIROUS E – EFFICIENT AND EFFECTIVE R – RESPONSIBLE. LEARN E – ENTHUSIASTIC. RESPECTFUL .LEADER • • • • • • L – LEAD. LOVE. ENERGETIC A – ASSERTIVE. ACHIEVER D – DEDICATED.
ACTIVITY 1 .
Nurse A is providing a structured orientation but is giving Nurse B the opportunity to seek out the information she needs and to design learning objectives to meet her needs. Nurse A tailors her leadership style according to the employees’ needs. Because this is Nurse A’s first management experience. She provides the nurse with information & offers to assist anytime the clinical nurse needs consultation.CASE STUDY Nurse A is the nurse manager of a 68-bed respiratory unit with 95 employees. explaining step-by-step the process for documentation. . experience. Nurse A promotes Nurse B. and situation. a clinical nurse to a 2-10PM charge position. Nurse A provides detailed instructions to the new nurse. In another situation. Nurse A asks a seasoned clinical nurse to take responsibility for the total quality improvement process. She is helping a graduate nurse who is in orientation to learn how to use the documentation forms.
What type of leadership theory is Nurse A using? 2. & situation? 3.CASE STUDY QUESTIONS: 1. knowledge. What are the characteristics of the leaders here? . What are the benefits of changing the leadership style based on the employee’s experience. What is the relationship between followership and leadership? 4.
MANAGEMENT • A process of coordinating actions and allocating resources to achieve organizational goals. .
MANAGERIAL ROLES • 1. INFORMATION PROCESSING • 2. DECISION-MAKING . INTERPERSONAL • 3.
INFORMATIONAL ROLES • The MONITOR role • The DISSEMINATION role • The SPOKESMAN role .
INTERPESONAL ROLE • The FIGUREHEAD role • The LEADER role • The LIASON role .
DECISIONAL ROLE • • • • The ENTREPRENEURIAL role The DISTURBANCE HANDLER role The RESOURCE ALLOCATOR role The NEGOTIATOR role .
MANAGEMENT PROCESS • Planning • Organizing • Staffing • Directing • Controlling .
and budget in order to achieve goals. programs. policies. . procedures. rules and regulations.PLANNING • Refers to the formulation of objectives.
defining the authority and responsibility that the personnel have in the use of the company’s material resources to attain predetermined goals or objectives. establishing relationships among them. .ORGANIZING • Is the grouping together of people.
.STAFFING • Involves filling and keeping the positions provided for in the organization structure.
delegating. . communicating.DIRECTING • Is a process that entail human resource management responsibilities. and facilitating collaboration. such as motivating. managing conflict.
.CONTROLLING • Is the process of measuring and correcting of activities of subordinates and the company to assure conformity to plans.
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT (Frederick Taylor) • 2.MANAGEMENT THEORIES • 1. ADMINISTRATIVE PRINCIPLES • 4. HUMAN RELATIONS . BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT (Max Weber) • 3.
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT (Frederick Taylor) • Focus is on GOALS and PRODUCTIVITY. .
Obtaining harmony in group action rather than disagreement. • 5. Achieving cooperation of employees rather than disorganized men. Working for maximum result than limited result. Developing all workers to the fullest extent possible for their own and their company’s highest prosperity and profitability. • 4.Principles of Scientific Management • 1. • 2. Replacing rule of thumb with science. • 3. .
Authority and Responsibility 3. Unity of direction 6. • 7. Division of work 2. Remuneration . Subordination of individual to general interest.General Principles of Management (Henri Fayol) • • • • • • 1. Discipline 4. Unity of command 5.
Scalar chain 10. Order 11. Centralization 9. Initiative 14.General Principles of Management (Henri Fayol) • • • • • • • 8. Esprit de corps . Equity 12. Stability of tenure 13.
.DIVISION OF WORK • This is the assignment of specialized jobs to various departments and/or positions.
AUTHORITY & RESPONSIBILITY • Authority as the power or the right entrusted to make the work possible and Responsibility as the duty or work assigned to a particular position. .
.DISCIPLINE • Respect for agreements which are directed at achieving obedience. and energy. application.
UNITY OF COMMAND • This means that subordinates should receive orders from one superior only. .
.UNITY OF DIRECTION • The same objective must have one head and one plan.
management must RECONCILE them. .SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL TO GENERAL INTEREST • When the interest of management and the workers differ.
.REMUNERATION • Employees must be paid a fair wage for their services rendered to the organization.
CENTRALIZATION • The degree to which subordinates are involved in decision making. .
.SCALAR CHAIN • This is the “chain of superiors” from the highest to the lowest ranks.
ORDER • There is order when people and materials are in the right place at the right time. .
.EQUITY • Loyalty and commitment should be elicited from personnel by a combination of kindness and justice on the part of managers when dealing with subordinates.
STABILITY OF TENURE • When there is high employee turnover. there is inefficient management. .
INITIATIVE • Is conceived to be the thinking out and execution of a plan and one of the satisfactions for an intelligent individual to experience. .
” .ESPRIT DE CORPS • This is the principle that “in unity. there is strength.
a hierarchy of authority. and a division of labor chain. .BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT (Max Weber) • Focus is on SUPERIOR-SUBORDINATE COMMUNICATION transmitted from the top down via a clear chain of command.
Favoritism is reduced and impersonality is promoted. Employees are accountable to one manager who is an authority.ADVANTAGES OF BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT • 1. . They maintain social distance with supervisors and clients. • 5. Employees perform by uniform rules and conventions. • 2. • 6. Rewards and other incentives are provided to employees based on technical qualifications. • 3. • 4. Competent & responsible employees are produced. seniority & achievement.
Procedural delays are observable.DISADVANTAGES OF BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT • 1. • 2. Complaints about red tape are frequently heard and experienced. • 3. . General frustrations among employees and clients are inevitable.
ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT • Focus is on the science of management and principles of an organization applicable in any setting. .
motivation. .HUMAN RELATIONS • Focuses on EMPOWERMENT of the individual worker as the source of control. and productivity in organizations.
TWO-FACTOR THEORY (Frederick Herzberg) 3. THEORY Z 5. THEORY X and THEORY Y 4.MOTIVATION THEORIES • • • • • 1. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS 2. THEORY M .
.ABRAHAM MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS • Needs at one level must be satisfied before one is motivated by needs at the next higher level of needs.
. • Motivator Factors include satisfying & meaningful work.TWO-FACTOR THEORY (Frederick Herzberg) • Hygiene – Maintenance Factors include adequate salary status. job security. quality of supervision. and relationships with others. development & advancement opportunities. safe and tolerable working conditions. and responsibility & recognition.
• Employees prefer security.THEORY X (Douglas Mc Gregor) • Leaders must direct and control because motivation results from reward and punishment. direction. . and minimal responsibility. and they need coercion and threats to get the job done.
. • The workers’ reward is their involvement in work and in the opportunity to be creative. workers have selfcontrol and self-discipline.THEORY Y (Douglas Mc Gregor) • Leaders must remove work obstacles as under the right work conditions.
. mentoring.THEORY Z (William Ouchi) • Uses collective decision making. long term employment. holistic concern. and use of quality circles to manage service and quality.
social. or economic. Such factors vary in relative importance according to conditions at the time. psychological. .THEORY M (Allen) • People are motivated to work by highly complex factors that may be biological.
INTERPERSONAL • 3.LEVELS OF SKILLS MANAGEMENT • 1. TECHNICAL . CONCEPTUAL • 2.
CONCEPTUAL SKILLS • Refer to an individual’s mental ability to coordinate a variety of interests and activities. .
and rule their desires to examine what is said. .INTERPERSONAL SKILLS • Provide individuals a unique flair in their speech. determine the amount of empathy heard in their words of consolation.
TECHNICAL SKILLS • Are the tools. and techniques that are unique to the nurse manager’s specialized situation. procedures. .
MANAGEMENT Pinoy Style .
Management by “KAYOD” • 2.STYLES OF PINOY MANAGEMENT • 1. Management by “LIBRO” • 3. Management by “LUSOT” • 4. Management by “SUYOD” .
Management by “KAYOD” • The REALIST MANAGER. . • His work is his pleasure in life.
Highly professional person who prefers American type management styles with technical jargon. .Management by “LIBRO” The Idealist manager.
• The type of manager who wants the least hardship and sweat. .Management by “LUSOT” • The Opportunist Manager. paying off problems and taking shortcuts.
. depth.Management by “SUYOD” • The Reconsider Manager. • Comprehensiveness. and thoroughness type of management.
AMERICAN MANAGEMENT PINOY MANAGEMENT Creative function Pakulo Planning function Organizing function Motivating function Decision-making function Communicating Function Controlling function Oido and swerte / bahala na Bata-bata style Alalay or warning Utos ng boss or Utos ng Misis Pakiusap or Mando Sipa or bonus .
MASLOW Physiological needs Safety PINOY MANAGEMENT Tiyan muna Safety – security guard sa bahay Social Esteem Self-realization Garbo – Social status Maging Presidente ng Rotary Club Maging miyembro ng Cabinet .
Thank you! .
earnestness and intensity in execution of work. confidence reflects experience and technical ability.” . Zeal reflects ardour.LEADERSHIP DEFINITION According to Koontz and o’ Donnell “it is the art of including the subordinates to accomplish their assignments with zeal and confidence.
or objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent Leadership makes people want to achieve high goals and objectives.‘ Leadership is a complex process by which a person influences others to accomplish a mission. 'Leadership is all about courage to dream big. while.CONCEPT OF LEADERSHIP Managers are people who do things right. Leadership can be used for good or ill Leadership skills can be perverted to pursue bad ends . task. on the other hand. bosses tell people to accomplish a task or objective. while leaders are people who do the right thing.
CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERSHIP Co-existence with follower ship Responsibility Understanding nature Precedence Situation .
• A leader exercises authority over the group. and it should be willingly accepted by his followers. • Leadership is not conferred or ordered but is one to be earned .Co-existence with follower ship : • a leader cannot exist without followers existing.
• he has to assume responsibility for all actions of the group.Responsibility: • a leader is expected to assume full responsibility in all situations. . • he must steer the group clear of all difficulties.
Understanding nature: • important characteristic feature of leadership is its nature to understand the feelings and problems of the group as a whole as well as the individuals. • a leader should strive to satisfy the personal and social needs of his followers. which is very much expected by them . • guide a leader is looked upon as a friend and a philosopher.
Precedence: • Since the leader influences the behavior and the activities of the followers he should be endowed with the technical competence and personality traits. • He should also be well aware of his own preferences and limitations to impress upon his followers .
• A leader should know on the role to be adopted on different situations .Situation: • Leadership patterns changes according to the type of group and the situation in which the group is operating.
IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP 1. Builds work environment 7. Motivation 3. Creating confidence 5. Initiates action 2. Building morale 6. Co-ordination . Providing guidance 4.
•Leader communicates the policies and plans to the subordinates from where the work actually starts.
•A leader motivates the employees with economic and non- economic rewards and thereby gets the work from the subordinates.
A leader guides by instructing the subordinates the way they have to perform their work effectively and efficiently.
It is also important to hear the employees with regards to their complaints and problems. explaining them clearly their role and giving them guidelines to achieve the goals effectively. .Creating confidence Confidence is an important factor which can be achieved through expressing the work efforts to the subordinates.
A leader can be a morale booster by achieving full co-operation so that they perform with best of their abilities as they work to achieve goals.
Builds work environment Management is getting things done from people. An efficient work environment helps in sound and stable growth.He should listen to his subordinates problems and solve them.
He should treat employees on humanitarian terms.
Co-ordination can be achieved through reconciling personal interests with organizational goals. This synchronization can be achieved through proper and effective co-ordination which should be primary motive of a leader.
IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP IN AN ORGANISATION Leadership and human behavior Leadership and Communication Leadership and motivation .
. A leader must understand these needs because they are powerful motivators.Leadership and human behavior Human nature is the common qualities of all people have similar needs .
coordinate. evaluate. and supervise through this process.Leadership and Communication Communication is very important because a leader coach. counsel. .
Leadership and motivation A person's motivation is a combination of desire and energy directed at achieving a goal. .
LEADERSHIP THEORIES 1.SITUATIONAL APPROACH .TRAIT APPROACH 2.BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH 3.
They are: Intelligence Social maturity and breath: Inner motivation and achievement drives Human relations attitude • • • • .TRAIT APPROACH Keith davis has summarized four of the major traits which might have an impact on successful organizational leadership.
respectful self concept • Inner motivation and achievement drives: Leaders have relatively intense motivational drives of the achievement type. They have an assured. According to research studies leaders possess consideration and are employee centered rather than production centered. The strive for intrinsic than extrinsic rewards. However the leader cannot be exceedingly much more intelligent than his followers • Social maturity and breath: Leaders tend to be emotionally stable and mature and to have broad interests and activities. . • Human relations attitude: Successful leaders recognize the worth and dignity of their followers and are able to emphasize with them.• Intelligence: Research has shown that generally a leader has higher intelligence that the average intelligence of the followers.
BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH • • • Autocratic Participative or supportive Instrumental or instrumental supportive .
.• Autocratic: An autocratic leader is one who commands and expects compliance. organizing. • Participative or supportive:The participative or supportive leadership behaviour is based on the assumption that people essentially want to participate. • Instrumental or instrumental supportive:Instrumental behaviour of leadership emphasizes the leaders role as a manager in the rational aspects of management namely planning. He is dogmatic and positive and leads by his ability to withhold or give rewards and punishments. controlling etc. want to accomplish and will work well if general supervision is employed and where they are allowed to use their own initiative and support is given while accomplishing their task.
SITUATIONAL APPROACH • Stagdill and his associates research findings revealed that leadership ability is heavily affected by situational factors like their job. psychological climate of the group their characteristics. group member personalities and cultural influences and so on . the organizational environment in which they operated history of the enterprise. community in which the organization operates.
Three things are important here: • The relationship between the leaders and followers: If leaders are liked and respected they are more likely to have the support of others. methods and standards of performance then it are more likely that leaders will be able to exert influence. • Position power: If an organization or group confers powers on the leader for the purpose of getting the job done. Fiedler argued that effectiveness depends on two interacting factors: leadership style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader control and influence.• CONTIGENCY THEORIES: THE FIEDLER MODEL:Fred E. • The structure of the task: If the task is clearly spelled out as to goals. . then this may well increase the influence of the leader.
SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY: • It is a contingency theory that focuses on followers' readiness. Readiness refers to the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. able and unwilling. unable and willing and unable and unwilling . There are four stages of readiness: able and willing.
being friendly and approachable. • directive leader behavior .setting challenging goals. expecting subordinates to perform at high levels. encouraging subordinates and showing confidence in subordinates' abilities. soliciting suggestions. . • participative leader behavior .consulting subordinates. and treating members as equals. and allowing participation in decision making. showing concern for subordinate welfare. • achievement-oriented behavior . • supportive leader behavior .letting subordinates know what is expected of them.THE PATH-GOAL THEORY: Path-goal theory identifies four kinds of leader behavior. and scheduling work. giving guidance and direction.
.J. Leadership in Organizations (Englewood Cliffs.Path-Goal Situations & Preferred Leader Behavior Source: Adapted from Gary A. Yukl.: Prentice-Hall. 1981). 146-152. N.
CONTEMPORARY THEORIES Transactional Leaders Clarify the role and task requirements of subordinates Initiate structure Provide appropriate rewards Display consideration for subordinates Meet the social needs of subordinates .
Charismatic Leaders The ability to inspire Motivate people to do more than they would normally do Tend to be less predictable than transactional leaders Create an atmosphere of change May be obsessed by visionary ideas .
Transformational Leader Similar to charismatic leaders Distinguished by their special ability to bring about innovation and change by Recognizing followers’ needs and concerns Helping them look at old problems in new ways Encouraging them to question the status quo .
The challenge for most managers is learning how to become an effective team leader. The role of team leader is different from the traditional leadership role. There are four basic team leadership roles: team leaders are liaisons with external constituencies. conflict managers and coaches .TEAM LEADER: Leadership is increasingly taking place within a team context. troubleshooters.
personality and experience of the leader. . It is the result of the philosophy.LEADERSHIP STYLES Leadership styles refer to a leader’s behaviour.
Kurt Lewin's Leadership styles Autocratic Democratic Laissez Faire Functional Institutional Paternalistic .
one person decides for the whole group.Autocratic Leader: • An Autocratic leader will not entertain any suggestions or initiative from subordinates. An autocratic leader does not trust anybody. . Under this type of leadership.
Merits: • It helps to make quick decisions • Inefficient and insincere workers can easily be identified Demerits • It kills initiatives for work and results in frustration among workers. • It often gives scope for conflicts between the leader and his followers .
• It may. . Merits • The decision finally made is mutually accepted. • It improves the job attitudes of the sub-ordinate staff. Demerits • this leadership is suitable only if the subordinates are all capable of making worthwhile suggestions.Participative or Democratic Leader: • A democratic leader can win the cooperation of his group and can motivate them effectively and positively. sometimes be very difficult to evolve a solution that is acceptable to everyone.
• Highly efficient subordinates. Demerits • Control may become difficult As the leader does not involve himself at all in the activities.Laissez Faire or Free Rein Leader: • A free rein leader will leave the group entirely to itself such as a leader allows maximum freedom to subordinates. Merits • 1. . • The subordinates are deprived of the expert advice and moral support of their leader. The superior subordinate relationship is found to be very good. can make use of the freedom given to them to excel.
. • the subordinates can certainly enrich their job knowledge and skill.Functional Leader: • A functional leader is one who is an expert in a particular field of activity. Merits • The very presence of an expert is beneficial to the followers and the organisation. Such a leader always thinks of the task he has undertaken and spends most of his time finding out ways and means of doing it better.
An institutional leader may not be an expert in his field of activity. . He may initiate action against a subordinate who is shirking duties. Merits • • He has official authority to act.Institutional Leader: • An institutional leader is one who has become a leader by virtue of his official position in the organisational hierarchy.
• • Demerits He will not be in a position to offer proper guidance to his followers because he may not be an expert in his field of activity. he may not have the moral right • . Although the leader has the official right to demand performance from his followers.
He is always ready to provide the necessary physical amenities to the sub-ordinates Demerits • He is not in a position to offer intellectual help to his followers. .Paternalistic Leader: • A paternalistic leader takes care of his followers in the way the head of the family takes care of the family members Merits • • He assumes a paternal role to protect his sub-ordinates.
Misunderstandings may also arise between the leader and his followers. .• • • Demerits The functional leader will not be able to go down to the level of an average worker and offer any help.
IMPORTANT KEYS FOR LEADERSHIP .
.IMPORTANT KEYS FOR LEADERSHIP • Trust and confidence in top leadership is the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization. • Effective communication by leadership in the critical areas is the key to winning organizational trust and confidence: • Helping employees understand the company's overall business strategy.
• Sharing information with employees on both how the company is doing and how an employee's own division is doing relative to strategic business objectives. .• Helping employees understand how they contribute to achieving key business objectives.
Chairman and Managing Director. . Radico khaitan) The most distinguished trait that defines a good leader is the willingness to make decisions that are need of the hour no matter how difficult they may be. DECISIVENESS IS KEY (LALIT KHAITAN. And the most significant component of such decisionmaking is self-confidence.LEADERSHIP SECRETS 1.
VISIONARY LEADERSHIP (B. .2.MUTHURAMAN. Tata steel) The ability to create a shared vision among team members is the primary trait of a true leader. Managing Director.
CEO AND President. Cognizant Technology Solutions) Good leadership is the ability to recognize all the factors that would make the leader succeed in motivating the group. RELATE AND RULE (N. .3.LAKSHMI NARAYAN.
Canara bank) A leader is only as good as his team. Chairman and Managing Director. TAKE RESPONSIBILTY (R. Leadership involves two steps: helping subordinates take advantage of their talents.SHASTRI.V. Good leaders always take responsibility for both the success and failure of their teams . and then fine tuning their performance.4.
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