Controlling Surges In Liquid Pipelines

Date: 05-12-2010

By: Clay Carroll

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Surge Overview

What is Surge?

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Surge Overview
 Sudden, rapid flow rate changes in a pipeline generate pressure waves  Pressure waves travel both upstream and downstream from the point of origin  Pressure increases and decreases rapidly  Wave speed propagation velocities range from 1100 ft/sec (334 m/sec) for water to 3300 ft/sec (1000 m/sec) for a typical oil pipeline

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Company Confidential .Surge Overview Pipeline surges are created by:     Slamming of non-return (check) valve Closure of ESD valves Starting and stopping of pumps Closure of MOV valves (at < 5 seconds per valve diameter inch) Note: Most surges are created by operator error.

Surge Overview All liquid piping systems are susceptible to surge effects • • • • Mainline systems Loading/unloading Process Households Company Confidential .

hoses.Surge Overview Problems from inadequate surge protection:       Axial separation of flanges Pipe fatigue failure of welds Longitudinal pipe splits Pumps knocked out of alignment Severe damage to piping and supports Damage to specialized components such as loading arms. bellows. Company Confidential . etc. filters.

Surge Overview Example of a pipeline without surge protection Company Confidential .

Surge Overview Y Split Company Confidential .

Company Confidential . La explosión ha generado una onda expansiva que afecto a la rotura de algunas conducciones y causo la inundación de varias salas.Surge Overview Un accidente en la central hidroeléctrica de Sajano-Shushenskaya por la explosión de un transformador.

Terminology        Design Pressure MAOP/MAWP Over Pressure Set Pressure Wave Speed Effective Valve Closure Surge Pressure Company Confidential .

Terminology Design Pressure  Highest pressure. expected during the most severe plant or pipeline operating conditions.  This pressure is always equal to or less than the MAOP/MAWP Company Confidential . at the maximum temperature.

3. Note: Pipelines are cover by ANSI B33. Plant piping is covered by ANSI B31. Company Confidential .4.Terminology MAOP / MAWP  Maximum gauge pressure permissible in the piping system at the designated temperature.

Company Confidential .Terminology Over Pressure  Pressure increase over the set pressure of the surge relief device expressed in units of pressure or percent of set pressure.

Terminology Set Pressure  The gauge pressure where the surge relief valve starts to open. Company Confidential .

Terminology Wave Speed of the Fluid  Velocity of sound in the fluid flowing in the pipeline.  This is the speed at which surge pressures are transmitted along a pipeline. Company Confidential .  Range from 1100 ft/sec (334 m/sec) for water to 3300 fps (1000 m/sec) for a typical crude oil pipeline.

Terminology Effective Valve Closure  Period over which the MOV or ESD valve reduces the flow from approx 90% of steady state to zero.  Butterfly valve:  Ball valve:  Plug valve: Last 15% Last 25% Last 30% Company Confidential .

Terminology Surge Pressure  The rapid change in pressure as a result of change in pipeline flow rates.  Conversion of kinetic energy (velocity) into potential energy (pressure). Company Confidential .

Equations Joukowski Equation h= C ∆V/ g Legend: h = head change (pressure) C = wave speed ∆V = fluid velocity change g = gravitational constant Only variable and key to surge control is to keep the ∆V down in steps to stay within pressure rating of the pipe and flanges. Company Confidential .

8 wV Legend: P = pressure rise (psi) w = liquid density (lbs/ft3) V = velocity change (ft/sec) Company Confidential .Equations Simplified Surge Formula From Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook: P = 0.

8 wV.3 Barg) Pipeline fluid velocity: 10 ft/sec (3.14 Barg). density = 50 lbs/ft3 ESD valve trips and closes down the pipeline (velocity = 0) Using P = 0. Surge pressure would be above MAWP. Company Confidential . calculated pressure rise = 400 Psi (27.03 m/sec) Media: Crude Oil.Equations Example Pipeline operating pressure: 600 Psig (41.59 Bar) If this was a ANSI 300# rated system (785 Psig / 54.

Equations Surge Formulas – Rule of Thumb  Pressure will rise about 50 PSI for each one (1) foot per second of fluid velocity change  (Metric) Pressure will rise about 10 Bar for each one (1) meter per second of fluid velocity change. Company Confidential .

4 Piping Code) Company Confidential .S. Dept of Transportation (DOT) Pipeline Regulations 49 CFR Part 195.DOT U.406 Pipeline operators must protect their pipelines to within 110% of the maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) (ASME/ANSI B31.

g. 24” NPS valve needs at least 120 seconds)  Selection and installation of proper surge pressure relief equipment at or near source of surge event. Company Confidential . <5 secs per inch of NPS valve size will likely cause a surge event (e.Design Design Approaches to Alleviating Surge Pressure in Pipelines  Computer modeling of pipeline hydraulics during the initial stages of project  Staged ship to shore telecommunications  Staged pump shut-down sequence(s)  Staged emergency shut-down (ESD) or motor operated (MOV) actuators to control valve closure times Rule of thumb is.

Design Typical surge pressure wave propagates at 1000 m/sec (3600 km/h) This translates into a minimal amount of response time Surge control measures must be fully automatic and incredibly fast Company Confidential .

e.Solutions to Pipeline Surges      Heavy wall pipe (i. over design system) Rupture Disk Spring loaded relief valves Hydraulic accumulators Nitrogen or pilot operated surge relief valves Company Confidential .

Company Confidential .Solutions to Pipeline Surges Heavy Wall Pipe Disadvantage is weight and cost.

Solutions to Pipeline Surges Rupture Discs  Costly to maintain due to single use  Costly loss of product due to non-automatic reset Company Confidential .

Solutions to Pipeline Surges Spring loaded relief valves  Relatively low flow capacity makes this impractical  Slam shut device Company Confidential .

Solutions to Pipeline Surges Spring loaded relief valves Company Confidential .

Solutions to Pipeline Surges Pilot Operated Relief valves Company Confidential .

Solutions to Pipeline Surges Surge Relief valves 660.000 BPD Cantidad : 1 Company Confidential .000 BPD @ 1700 PSI 12” = 660.

000 BPD Cantidad : 9 Company Confidential .000 BPD @ 1700 PSI 3 X K X 4 = 73.Solutions to Pipeline Surges Spring loaded relief valves 660.

000 BPD Cantidad : 8 Company Confidential .Solutions to Pipeline Surges Pilot Operated Relief valves 660.000 BPD @ 1700 PSI 3 X K X 4 = 90.

Solutions to Pipeline Surges Hydraulic Accumulators  Requires accurate sizing due to limited capacity  Internal bladder is an elastomer  Small size usually requires multiple accumulators to relieve pipeline pressure Company Confidential .

Solutions to Pipeline Surges Nitrogen or pilot operated surge relief valves Best solution     Automatic reset Very fast – response time less than 100 msec (1/10 sec.) Doesn’t slam shut High capacity Company Confidential .

N2 Loaded Surge Valve Company Confidential .

Nitrogen Panel Company Confidential .

Total System Company Confidential .

Pilot Operated Surge Valve Principle of operation – Pilot Operated Company Confidential .

Typical – Pilot Operated P&ID Company Confidential .

Surge Event Typical surge event is over in a few seconds Company Confidential .

DOT Regulations 49CFR195.428 Company Confidential .

PRESENTATION TITLE Useful Design Information Date Speaker Information Company Confidential .

Nitrogen Loaded Pop Test .Inline Company Confidential .

Inline Company Confidential .Pilot Operated Pop Test .

01  Do not apply API or ASME VIII codes to these types of valves – as they do not apply.5. Company Confidential .Surge Valve Design Codes  Surge relief valves are designed to ASME B16. ASME B16.  Seat leakage per FCI 70.2  Valve sizing (Cv) is done per ISA 75.34.

N2 Loaded Valves Pros  Opens at the speed of the surge wave  No process media enters the plug cavity (only Nitrogen)  Very few parts to maintain in the valve (simple design)  Valve of choice for any dirty or viscous service Cons  Does required periodic N2 cylinder replacement. Company Confidential .

Pilot Operated Valves
Pros  Self operated (does require a upstream line tap)  Valve of choice for clean refined products in valve sizes 4” and below

Cons  Filter on valve will plug in dirty services (crude oil, etc.)  Valve full open time is slowed due to limited pilot capacity.

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Surge Detection
Use thermal dispersion type flow switches. Install downstream of surge valve. ***Do not use flow meters or paddle type flow switches.

Highly recommend Fluid Components FLT93S or Magnetrol (TD2) for this application.

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Information required for Hydraulic Analysis

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Process flow diagrams P&ID’s Isometrics or piping routing Pipe specifications Equipment datasheets Operating procedures Flow utility diagrams Young's Modulus Pump head/flow/efficiency and power/characteristics

 Valve information  Design & normal operating conditions  Operating temps  Fluid viscosity  Fluid density  Vapor Pressure  Critical pressure

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Information Required for Valve Sizing            Set Pressure Back pressure Process media Name Desired relief flow rate Specific gravity Viscosity Vapor & Critical pressure Flowing & design temps Design pressure Allowable overpressure (10% is typical) Inlet/outlet pipe sizes & schedules Company Confidential .

Typical Applications Pump Station MOV MOV INLET Pumping Station OUTLET SRV SRV Surge Tank Pump Company Confidential .

Typical Applications Ship Loading Loading Arm / Hose Hose Disconnect MOV Storage Tank Pump SRV ESD TANKER Company Confidential .

Typical Applications Main Line Block Valve MOV Inlet Outlet SRV Company Confidential .

What is the difference between pressure relief valve and surge relief valve? The pressure relief valve start to open at a set pressure and que flow capacity and lift increase as increase the pressure in the system. That valves prevent a liquid hammer. the standard PSV did not. ussually that valves do not change the fluid direction to handle hight flow capacity. Company Confidential . usually the overpressure rise a 10% above the set pressure. In a Surge relief valve the valve open 100% when the system rise the set pressure and the accumulation on the system it is less than 2%.

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Questions Company Confidential .

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