16 (Overview)

What is Wireless Broadband?
Evolution of Wireless Broadband.

What is Wimax?

What is Wireless Broadband?
Bringing the broadband experience to a wireless context.

Wireless Broadband.
Fixed wireless Broadband. (Alternative to DSL, cable modem) Ex: Alvarion, WIPLL Mobile Broadband. (Additional functions: portability, nomadicity,


Where is Wimax?

Evolution of Wireless Broadband.
1.Wireless Local Loop system (WLL).
Ex: DECT, CDMA. Internet was commercialized in 1993. First application of wireless: Alternative for Voice telephony.

WLL systems had to offer additional value to be competitive.
few hundred of kilobits per second data rate in 900Mhz, 1900Mhz, 2.4Ghz. 2.

First Generation Broadband system.

DSL and Cable modem began to deployed. Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Services (MMDS) band at 2.5Ghz. This enabled LOS coverage. 3.

Second Generation Broadband System.

 NLOS coverage using OFDM, CDMA and multichannel antenna processing.

4. Emergence of Standards - Based technology.
In 1998,IEEE formed a group called 802.16 to develop a standard for WMAN.

Focused on developing 10Ghz to 66Ghz band.
Standard approved in December 2001. This standard (Wireless MAN-SC), specified a physical layer that used single-carrier modulation techniques AND a Media Access Control (MAC) layer with a burst time division multiplexing (TDM) structure that supported both Frequency Division Duplexing(FDD) and Time Division Duplexing(TDD).

After that, standard work on extending it in the 2Ghz to
11Ghz and IEEE 802.16a, was completed in 2003. this enabled NLOS coverage also. Further revisions to 802.16a made and completed in 2004.this revised standard ,IEEE 802.16-2004 replaces 802.16, 802.16a-d.

In order to develop interoperable solutions using the 802.16 family of standards, the scope of the standard had to be reduced by establishing consensus on what options of the standard to implement and test for interoperability. The Worldwide Interoperable for Microwave Access

(WIMAX) forum was formed to solve this problem and to
promote solutions based on the IEEE 802.16 standards.

WiFi based on the 802.11 family of standards and primarily a local are networking (LAN) technology designed to provide in-building Broadband coverage.

Overview Of Wimax

Protocol Layers and topologies.
 802.16 standard applies the OSI seven layer model.
In 802 standard Data Link layer split in to two sub layers.

In Wimax/802.16 only first two layers defined.
MAC layer PHYsical layer

The MAC Layer is itself made of three sub layers.
Convergence sublayer (CS) Common part sublayer (CPS) Security Sublayer

 PHYsical Layer :In 802.16 standard the MAC layer can be
used with OFDM PHY or OFDMA PHY layer.

 Wimax topologies.
 Point to Multipoint (PMP) topology.
traffic may take place only between a BS and its SSs

 Mesh topology/Mesh mode. Traffic can be routed through other SSs. Mesh topology is not yet part of a WiMAX certification profile

Wimax PHYsical Layer.
Wimax PHYsical Layer based on OFDM and OFDMA. Wimax/802.16 use digital modulation. Four modulations are supported by the IEEE 802.16 standard: BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM.

Generation of OFDM signal (simplified)

Cyclic prefix insertion in an OFDM symbol TG = Guard time, Ts = OFDM symbol time,

Td = Data duration,
G = TG/Td

802.16-2004 using following parameters for single carrier. Number of Orthogonal subcarriers (N):256 Number of used Orthogonal subcarriers (Nused):192 Number of Pilot subcarriers:8 Number of Left & Right guard subcarriers:55

Direct Current (DC), null subscribers:1
Max. Data Rate = number of uncoded bits per symbol OFDM symbol duration

Wimax MAC Layer.

MAC layer consist with three sublayers.

Service Specific Convergence Sublayer(CS) is the Top sublayer of
the MAC Layer in WiMAX/802.16 CS accepts higher-layer PDUs from the higher layers and transmits them to the MAC CPS. Payload Header Suppression (PHS), Classifying and mapping the MSDUs into appropriate CIDs (Connection IDentifier) also done by the CS.

The Common Part Sublayer (CPS) resides in the middle of the MAC
layer Bandwidth allocation, connection establishment, maintenance of the connection between the two sides are functions of CPS. Security Sublayer providing authentication, secure key exchange, encryption and integrity control

 Classification and Mapping based on two fundamental concepts. • Connection: MAC Level connection between a BS and an MS or inversly. unidirectional mapping between a BS and an SS MAC peers for the purpose of transporting a service flow's traffic.A connection is identified by a CID (Connection IDentifier), an information coded on 16 bits •Service flow: A Service Flow (SF) is a MAC transport service that provides unidirectional transport of packets on the uplink or on the downlink. A service flow is identified

by a 32-bit SFID (Service Flow IDentifier).

Service flow allocation

• Classification & Mapping;

A classifier is a set of matching criteria applied to each packet

entering the WiMAX/802.16 network.

• QoS Parameters
Scheduling service type:BE (default), nrPS, rtPS and UGS Traffic priority:The value of this parameter specifies the priority assigned to a service flow Maximum sustained traffic rate: peak information rate of the service Maximum traffic burst: maximum burst size that is accommodated

for the service
Minimum reserved traffic rate: minimum rate reserved for this service flow

Tolerated jitter: maximum delay variation (jitter) for the

Maximum latency: maximum latency between the reception of
a packet by the BS or SS on its network interface and the forwarding of the packet to its RF interface and the forwarding of the packet to its RF interface. Fixed-length versus variable-length SDU indicator:The value of this parameter specifies whether the SDUs on the service flow are of a fixed length or variable length SDU size: length of the SDU for a fixed-length SDU service flow

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