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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Formation Breakdown / permeability analysis from thin fluid pressure decline Step-Rate Test/maximum matrix injection rate Step-Down Test / prediction of near-wellbore friction Proppant Slugs / remove NWF if it exists Main Minifrac / for prediction of fluid loss Main Treatment design based on pre-frac injection information

Pressure

Time

Pressure

x x x x Rate

Step-Down Test

Perforation Friction Dominated Regime

Rate Bottomhole Pressure P1 P2 Q1 Q2 P3 Q3 P4 ISIP Bottomhole pressure - ISIP

P1

Total friction

P2 P3 P4 Q4

Tortuosity f(Q0.5)

Q4

Time

Q3

Q2 Rate

Q1

Step-Down Test

Tortuosity Dominated Regime

Bottomhole pressure - ISIP Rate Bottomhole Pressure P1 P2 P3 Q1 Q2 Q3 P4 ISIP Q4 P1 P2 P3

Tortuosity f(Q0.5) Total friction

P4

Perforation friction f(Q2)

Time

Q4

Q3 Rate

Q2

Q1

Main Minifrac

Design minifrac volume to obtain stable geometry (injection time ~5-20 min) and short closure time (<30 minutes). Pump minifrac at expected job rates using frac fluid. Monitor pressure decline until after fracture closure by analysing pressure decline data with P vs. sqrt(time) plot or G-function plot. Match decline curve using FracPro to match fluid efficiency, closure time, and pressure decline

Minifrac Simulation

Length Upper Ht Lower Ht

Eff Rate

5 10 15 20 25

Time (min)

Determination of ISIP

Shu t In ISIP Intersection of vertical line Intersection of vertical line and im aginary straight and im aginary straight line line gh the early tim e throuthrou gh early tim e dd eclineis the ISIP ecline is the ISIP

Pressure (psi) 1964 08:09:40 2520 Corrected Pressure 1956 HALLIBURTON MINIFRAC ANALYSIS 08-Jun-1994 15:44:05 Delta Fluid Closure Pressure Efficiency Time 166 24.6% 08:13:59 08:11:40 08:13:40 08:15:40 08:17:40 08:21:40 Delta Time (min) 4.32 08:25:40

2420

2320

2220

2120

The vertical cross hair shou ld intersect the d ecline cu rve w here it d eviates from the straight line.

2020

1920

1820 0.00

2.00

8.00

10.00

12.00

Pressure (psi) 166 08:09:46 400 Corrected Pressure 174 HALLIBURTON MINIFRAC ANALYSIS 08-Jun-1994 15:55:24 Slope Fluid Closure Efficiency Time 1.00 24.6% 08:13:59 08:10:40 Delta Time (min) 4.33 08:19:39

Wellbore Storage

100

10

0.1

10

Pressure (psi) 166 08:09:46 400 Corrected Pressure 174 HALLIBURTON MINIFRAC ANALYSIS 08-Jun-1994 15:54:36 Slope Fluid Closure Efficiency Time 0.64 24.6% 08:13:59 08:10:40 Delta Time (min) 4.33 08:19:39

100

This portion of the curve corresponds to the stright line portion of the square root time plot. Note the slope is 0.64 which is greater than the theoretical value of 0.5.

Right end of movable line has been pulled in to lay on the vertical crosshair.

10

0.1

10

Pressure (psi) 166 08:09:46 400 Corrected Pressure 174 HALLIBURTON MINIFRAC ANALYSIS 08-Jun-1994 15:56:15 Slope Fluid Closure Efficiency Time 0.35 24.6% 08:13:59 08:10:40 Delta Time (min) 4.33 08:19:39

100

The last p ortion of the cu rve occu rs after the fractu re has closed .

Bilinear Flow

10 0.1 1 Delta Time (min) 10

HALLIBURTON MINIFRAC ANALYSIS 27-Jul-1994 10:15:53 Pressure (psi) 1946 08:09:40 2520 Corrected Pressure 1937 08:12:04 Delta Pressure 172 08:15:04 Fluid Efficiency 27.9% 08:18:36 Closure Time 08:14:59 08:22:38 Delta Time (min) 5.32 08:27:10

2420

2320

2220

2120

2020

1920

1820 0.00

0.20

0.80

1.00

Use of Derivatives

HALLIBURTON MINIFRAC ANALYSIS 28-Jun-1994 14:41:53 Pressure (psi) 4110 10:22:05 4770 4670 4570 4470 4370 4270 4170 4070 3970 3870 0.00 Corrected Pressure 4105 Delta Pressure 483 10:27:05 Fluid Efficiency 59.0% 10:32:05 Closure Time 10:39:22 10:37:05 Delta Time (min) 17.30 10:42:05 CP 1st Dv CP 2nd Dv 10:52:05

5.00

15.00

20.00

25.00

30.00

35.00

FracPro Match

After Matching Minifrac Tests, alter treatment schedule and predict treatment pressures/fracture growth. Adjust treatment schedule based on design objectives. Normal objectives are to attempt to pack the fracture (except in low perm wells), obtain desired frac length, and limit fluid volumes.

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