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Presentation On Real-Time Facial Recognition.

Made by: Akshya Dhingra. B.Tech(IIIrd year). Electronics And Communication Engineering.

Real-Time Facial Recognition.


Topics Of Discussion.
What are Biometric methods of recognition. What is facial recognition? Why I choose face recognition over other biometric? Need of real-time face recognition? Steps of facial recognition. How FRS works. Future of facial recognition.

A biometric is a unique, measurable characteristic of a human being that can be used to automatically recognize an individual or verify an individuals identity. Biometrics can measure both physiological and behavioral characteristics. Physiological biometrics (based on measurementsand data derived from direct measurement of a part of the human body).

Physiological Biometrics.
Finger-scan. Facial Recognition. Iris-scan. Retina-scan. Hand scan.

What Is Face Recognition?

Face recognition technology analyze the unique shape ,pattern and positioning of the facial features. Face recognition is very complex technology and is largely software based. The face recognition system locates the head and finally the eyes of the individual. A matrix is then developed based on the characteristics of the individuals face.

Why I choose face recognition over other biometric?

It is accurate and allows for high enrollment and verification rates. It does not require an expert to interpret the comparison result. It is the only biometric that allow you to perform passive identification in a one to many environment (e.g: identifying a terrorist in a busy Airport terminal.)

Need Of Real-Time Face Recognition In Todays World.

Fight terrorism. Find fugitives.

Personal information access

ATM. Sporting events. Home access (no keys or passwords). Any other application that would want personal identification.

Improved human-machine interaction. Personalized advertising.

Requirements Of Real-Time Face Recognition system.

Want the system to be inexpensive enough to use at many locations . Match within seconds
Before the person walks away from the advertisement. Before the fugitive has a chance to run away.

Ability to handle a large database. Ability to do recognition in varying environments.

What Is Difficult About RealTime Face Recognition.

Lighting variation. Orientation variation (face angle). Size variation. Large database. Processor intensive. Time requirements.

FERET database.

Contains images of 1,196 individuals, with up to 5 different images captured for each individual.

Often used to test face recognition algorithms.

General Face Recognition Steps.

Face Detection. Face Normalization. Face Identification.

Face Detection.
In General Detect face from the given images in a database. Separate it from the scene.

Face Detection: Motion Detecting and Head Tracking.

Face Normalization.
Expression. Rotation. Lighting. Scale. Head tilt.

Face Normalization: FERET face2norm.

1. Image is rotated to align the eyes (eye coordinates must be known). 2. The image is scaled to make the distance between the eyes constant. The image is also cropped to a smaller size that is nearly just the face. 3. A mask is applied that zeros out pixels not in an oval that contains the typical face. The oval is generated analytically. 4. Histogram equalization is used to smooth the distribution of gray values for the non-masked pixels. 5. The image is normalized so the non-masked pixels have mean zero and standard deviation one.

Face Identification.

It uses various face recognition algorithms. Include PCA (Principle Component Algorithm). Eigen face algorithm.

Parameter Based Facial Recognition.

Facial image is analyzed and reduced to small set of parameters describing prominent facial features. Major features analyzed are: eyes, nose, mouth and cheekbone curvature. These features are then matched to a database. Advantage: recognition task is not very expensive.

How FRS Works?

If you look at the mirror, you can see that your face has certain distinguishable landmarks. Visionics defines these landmarks as nodal points. There are about 80 nodal points on a human face.

Nodal Points On Face.

There are about 80 nodal points on a human face. Few nodal points that are measured by the software are: distance between the eyes. width of the nose. jaw line. chin.

How the System Worked.

Not Everyone Loves Face Recognition.

Critics say it produces too many false positives. Invasion of privacy. To easy to misuse for wrong purposes. Technology is not accurate enough given the current technology and algorithms.

Future Of Face Recognition.

Very large potential market. Demand for the installation of facial recognition technology rises up day by day at various organisations , airports. So that developers estimates that it will be on its peak till 2020 among all the Biometrics.

Face recognition technologies have been associated generally with very costly top secure applications. Today the core technologies have evolved and the cost of equipments is going down dramatically due to the integration and the increasing processing power. Certain application of face recognition technology are now cost effective, reliable and highly accurate.

M. Turk and A. Pentland. Eigenfaces for Recognition. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 3(1), 1991 C. Nastar and M. Mitschke. Real-Time Face Recognition Using Feature Combination. In Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, Nara, Japan, April 1998 J. Gilbert and W. Yang. A Real-Time Face Recognition System using Custom VLSI Hardware. Harvard Undergraduate Honors Thesis in Computer Science, 1993.

Thank You