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Training and Development


Training and Development
Definition- It is an attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skiiks and knowledge.


Training and Development
The need for training and development is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency, computed as follows: Training and development need= Standard performance Actual performance


Difference between Training & Development
Training Application orientation Job Experience Specific Tasks Narrow prospective Education Theoretical Classroom learning General concepts Broad prospective


Difference between Training, Development and Education
It may be stated that Training is offered to operatives, whereas Developmental programs are meant for employees in higher positions. Education, however is common to all the employees, their grades notwithstanding.


Inputs in Training & Development
Skills Education Development Attitudinal changes Decision making and problem solving skills


Importance of Training & Development
 Helps remove employee deficiencies  Improves Stability of employees  Improves Flexibility of employees  Increases Growth capacity of employees


The Training process
A. Organizational objectives and strategies B. Assessment of Training needs C. Establishment of Training goals D. Devising Training program E. Implementation of training program F. Evaluation of results


Barriers to effective Training
Lacking management committee Inadequate spending on Training Graduates lack skills Poaching of trained workers No help to workers dispersed due to down sizing  Employers and B-schools don’t have close ties  Lack of organized labors
    

How to make Training effective?
 Ensure that management allocates adequate     

resources and time Ensure that training contributes to competitive strategies Ensure that comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists Make learning a fundamental value of the company Ensure proper linkage between organizational, operational and individual training needs Create a system to evaluate effectiveness of training 10

Socialization is basically molding people to internalize the systems and practices of the organization. It includes giving proper orientation to the new employees on socializing norms to shape their behavior and actions in line with the philosophy and culture of the organization.

Socialization Process
Stage I) Pre-arrival Stage II) Encounter Stage III) Metamorphosis Stage IV) Outcomes- Productivity, Commitment, Turnover


Explaining Stages of Socialization Process
Pre-arrival Stage explicitly recognizes that each individual enters with a set of values, attitudes and expectations of their own. Upon joining the organization, the new employees enter the Encounter stage. In this stage, the individuals confront with the reality which may just be reverse to their expectations.

Explaining Stages of Socialization Process
Metamorphosis Stage In working out the problems discovered during the encounter stage, the persons may go through certain changes. Hence this stage is called the Metamorphosis stage


Types of Socialization programs
Formal/Informal Informal- When new employees are put directly into their jobs, with no effort made to differentiate them from those who have been doing their jobs for a considerable time. Formal- The new employee is segregated from the ongoing work setting and differentiated in some way to make explicit his role as a newcomer Individual/Collective