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Electric Current
• The definition of electric current (Pengertian arus listrik) • The previous lesson about electrosstatics ( listrik statis adalah)That a positive charge flows(arus)from a higher(tinggi) electric potential to lower(rendah) eletric potential
• The direction of the conventional current from A to B(arah konvensional dari A ke B)
I
• A
+ + 
B
e
• The direction of motion of electron from B to A (arah gerak elektron dari B ke A)
Switch on
conventional current
electron current
The direction of conventional current is opposite to the direction flow (Arah arus konvensonal berlwanan dengan arah arus elektron)
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
• Define electric current • Distinguish between conventional current and electron flow • Use charge = current x time to solve problem • Define the potential difference across a componen in a circuit • Define resistance and use R = V : I to solve problem
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
• Use the proportionality between resistance, the length and cross sectional area of a wire to solve problems • State ohm’s law • Use the formula for the effective resistance of resistors in series and in parallel to solve problems
Electric current
• A flow of electric charge from one place to another.(Aliran listrik yg mengalir dr satu tempat ke tempat lain) • An electric current is a measure of the amount of charge flowing per unit time in a closed circuit. (arus listrik adalah jumlah muatan yg mengalir per satuan waktu di dalam rangkaian tertutup) • Electric current formula: q q = electric charge(C) • I = t = time(s) t I = electric current(Cs1 or A)
Solve problem1
• When the started motor of a car is switched on for 0.5 s, 16 C of charge passes through (muatan melewati) the wires in the motor. Assuming the charge is uniformly trasmitted over the given time(dengan anggapan bahwa muatan ditransmisisikan secara bersama pd waktu diberikan),how large is the electric current?(brp besar arus listrik)
ANSWER1
• Given : q = 16 C, t = 0.5 s • Question : I = .......? • Answer : • q 16 • I =  =  = 32 A • t 0.5
Solve probleminduced(di induksika 2
• By electrostatic induction(induksi elektrostatik), a charge of 109 C is n) on insulated(dibungkus) metal sphere(bola logam). If this amount of charge taken 103 s to flow through a galvanometer (a device for detected and measuring a small current), calculate ! • a. the average(ratarata) electric current indicated (yg ditunjukkan) by the galvanometer • b. the number of electrons that pass through the galvanometer persecond (take the charge carried by each electron as 1.6 x 1019 C)
ANSWER2
• Given : q = 109 C, t = 103 s • Question : I = ...? N = ...?( t = 1 s and e = 1.6 x 10 19 C) • Answer : q 109 10 6 • I =  =  = 10 6 A N = t 103 1.6 x 10 19 = 6.25 x 1012
The direction of the conventional current
• The direction of the conventional current is taken as the direction a positive charge would flow • The direction of the conventional current is opposite to the direction of motion of electrons
The direction of the conventional current
• The direction of the conventional current from A to B(arah konvensional dari A untuk B) • A A
+ +
I
B B

e
• The direction of motion of electron from B to A (arah gerak elektron dari B ke A)
The direction of the conventional current(arah konvensional saat ini)
• The direction of the conventional current from B to A A B •

I

e
• The direction of motion of electron from A to B(arah gerak elektron dari A ke B)
• The direction of the conventional current from B to A • (arah arus konvensional dari B ke A) • • A I B
+ + ++ ++
The direction of the conventional current
•
e
• The direction of motion of electron from A to B( arah gerak elektron dari A ke B )
ELECTRIC CIRCUIT
• AN OPENED CIRCUIT AND • A CLOSED CIRCUIT
AN OPENED CIRCUIT AND A CLOSED CIRCUIT
• An opened circuit is a circuit at off position (no connected with voltage source) • A closed circuit is a circuit at on position ( connected with voltage source)
An opened circuit schema
• An opened circuit schema •
L
S
L = lamp S = switch E = electromotive force (e m f)
E
A closed circuit schema
• A closed circuit schema • E =electromotive L force (e m f) L = lamp s S = switch
E
Potential Difference(Voltage)
• The potential difference across a component a circuit(rangakaian) is difined as the work done to drive a unit charge through the component • W W= work done (J) • V = q = charge (C) • q V = Voltage (V)
Solve problem1
• When 2 C of charge flows through a potential difference of 8 V, how much energy is involved?
ANSWER1
• Given: q = 2 C V = 8 V • Question: W = .....? • Answer : W = q X V • = 2 X 8 = 16 J
Resistance
• Resistance is defined as the ratio of the potential difference across the component to the current flowing through it. • V V = potential difference (V) • R = I = current (A) • I R = resistance (ohm)
Solve problem1
a. A lamp draws a current of 0.25 A when it is connected to a 240 V source. What is the resistance of the lamp? b. Calculate the current flowing through a 5 ohm resistor when a potential difference of 2 V is applied across it.
ANSWER1(a)
a. Given : I = 0.25 V= 240 V • Question : R = .....? • Answer : V 240 • R =  =  = 960 Ω • I 0.25
ANSWER1(b)
b. Given : R = 5 Ω V = 2 V • Question : I = ... ? • Answer : V 2 • I =  =  = 0.4 A • R 5
Measuring electric current
• To measure the size of an electric current can be used by an ammeter or amperemeter • The ammeter must be connected in series to the circuit
Measuring electric current
Measuring Potential Difference
• The potential difference across two point in a circuit can be measured by a voltmeter • The voltmeter must be connected in parallel to the component across which the potential difference is being measured
Measuring Potential Difference
How do you read the amperemeter?
60 5A 1A 100mA A
100µA
0A Amperemeter
• While positive cable connected to 1 A, then value of ammeter is • 30/100 X 1 A = 0.3 A • While positive cable connected to 100mA, then value of ammeter is • 30/100 X 100 mA = 30 mA
How do you read the amperemeter?
5A 1A 100mA A A
60
100µA
0A Amperemeter
• While positive cable connected to 1 A, then value of ammeter is • 70/100 X 1 A = 0.70 A • While positive cable connected to 100mA, then value of ammeter is • 70/100 X 100 mA = 70 mA • Etc
How do you read the voltmeter?
12 V 9V 6V V
60
3V
0V Voltmeter
• While positive cable connected to 3 V, then value(nilai) of voltmeter is • 30/100 X 3 V = 0.9 V • While positive cable connected to 12 V, then value of voltmeter is • 30/100 X 12 V = 3.6 V
How do you read the voltmeter?
12 V 9V 6V V V
60
3V
0V Voltmeter
• While positive cable connected to 3 V, then value of voltmeter is • 80/100 X 3 V = 2.4 V • While positive cable connected to 12 V, then value of voltmeter is • 80/100 X 12 V = 9.6 V
Types of resistors
There are two kinds resistors namely • Fixed(tetap/tertentu) resistor • Variabe(berubah/variasi) resistor
Symbol of resistor
1. fixed resistor
2. variabel resistor
Resistance in wire
• Factors affecting(mempengaruhi) resistanc(tahanan) in wire(kawat) are 1. The types of wire (ρ=resistivity) 2. The lenght of wire ( l) 3. The thickness of wire ( A = cross sectional area)
Factors affecting resistance in wire are
• A high resistivity wire has more resistance than a low resistivity wire • A long wire has more resistance than a short wire • A thin wire has more resistance than a thick wire
Relationship
• The resistance (R) of a uniform wire is directly proportional (berbanding lurus) to its length • And inversely proportional (berbanding terbalik) to its cross sectional area (A) • And too directly proportional to resistivity (ρ)
Relationship formula between the resistance of wire(R) with resistivity(ρ), length (l) and crosssectional (A) area of wire
• • • • l R = ρ A R=resistance(ohm) l= length of wire(m) ρ= resistivity(ohm m) A=crosssectional(m2)
Solve Problem 1
• The diameter of the copper wire used in a circuit is 2 mm, if the resistivity for copper is 1.7 x 108 Ωm, what is the resistance for 50 cm of this wire ?
Answer 1
• • • • • • • • • Given : d =2mm = 2 x 103 m, ρ = 1.7 x 108 Ωm l = 50 cm = 5 x 101m Question : R =.......? Answer: A = π r2 = 22/7 x (103)2 = 22/7 x 106 l 5 x 101 R = ρ  = 1.7 x 108  = 2.7 x 103 Ω A 22/7 x 106
Solve Problem 2
• A wire with length (l) and crosssectional area (A) has resistance of 10 Ω. What is the resistance of another wire made of the same material but with length 2l and cross sectional area 4A ?
Answer 2
• • • • • • • • • Given : A2 =4A1, R1 =10 Ω ρ1 = ρ2 = ρ l2 = 2 l 1 Question : R2 =.......? Answer: l 2l 10 = ρ  and R2 = ρ  = 1/2 (10) A 4A = 5 ohm
OHM’S LAW
• Ohm’s law states that the current through a metal conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across the ends of the conductor proveded that the physical condition and temperature remain constant
The graph of Current(I) and the potential difference(V)
I •
• • • •
V
straight line V Gradient = I =R
•
V
I
KIRCHHOFF’S LAW
• In the singular circuits
• I
L1
I1
L2
I2
L3
I3 I=I1=I2=I3
• In the complex circuits
• • • • •
L1 L2 L3
I1 I2 I3
I
I=I1+I2+I3 ΣI enter = ΣI exit
Solve Problem 1
• If I1= 2A, How large are I2,I3, I4 and I5
L1 L2 L3 L4 L5
Answer1
• • • • Given : I1 = 2A Question : I2 ,I3 ,I4 ,I5 = ....? Answer: I1 = I2 = I3= I4= I5 = 2A
Solve Problem 1
• • • I1= 3A • I2 =5A • I3 = ...?
I5 = 2A
I4 = 20 A I6 = ....?
Answer2
• • • • Given : I1= 3A , I2 =5A , I4 = 20 A , I5 = 2A Questions: I3 = ...?, I6 = ....? Answer: I3 = I4 – (I1+I2) = 20 – (3+5) = 12 A
• I6 = I4 – I5 = 20 – 2 = 18 A
Resistors in series and resistors in paralell
1. Resistors in series R1 R2 R3
V = V1 + V2 + V3
I = I1= I2= I3 V=IxR
V1
V2
V3
V1 = I x R1, V2 = I x R2, V3 = I x R3 I x R= I x R1+ I x R2 + I x R3, R =R1+ R2 + R3
2. Resistors in paralell R1 R2 R3
V1 = V2 = V3 = V I = I1 + I2 + I3 V1 V I1 =  = R1 R1 V2 V V3 V V V V V I2 =  =  , I3 =  =  ,  = + + R2 R2 R3 R3 RP R1 R2 R3 1 1 1 1  =  +  + RP R1 R2 R3
Solve Problem 1
• R1 = 2 Ω R2 = 12 Ω R3 = 20 Ω R4 = 22 Ω
Total resistance = .....? Answer: Rs = R1+ R2+ R3+ R4 = 2+12+20+22 =56 Ω
6Ω
Solve Problem 2
• • • • • • • • •
Total resistance = .....? Answer: 12Ω 1 1 1 1 1  =  +  +  + 2Ω RP R1 R2 R3 R4 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 1 6 13  =  +  +  +  =  +  +  +  = RP 6 3 12 2 12 12 12 12 12 RP = 12/13 Ω
3Ω
Solve Problem 3
4Ω 3Ω 5Ω 6Ω 7Ω
2Ω Total resistance = .....? Answer: 1 1 1 2 1 3  =  +  =  +  = RP1 2 4 4 4 4 1 RP1 = 4/3 Ω = 1  Ω 3
3Ω
Solve problem 3 (answer)
1 1 1 1 2 3  =  +  =  +  = RP2 6 3 6 6 6 RP2 = 6/3 Ω = 2 Ω RT = R1+ RP1 + R4 + RP2 R7 1 1 RT = 3 + 1 + 5 + 2 + 7 =18  Ω
•
3
3
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