Electric Current
The definition of electric current (Pengertian arus listrik) The previous lesson about electrosstatics ( listrik statis adalah)That a positive charge flows(arus)from a higher(tinggi) electric potential to lower(rendah) eletric potential
e
The direction of motion of electron from B to A (arah gerak elektron dari B ke A)
Switch on
conventional current
electron current
The direction of conventional current is opposite to the direction flow (Arah arus konvensonal berlwanan dengan arah arus elektron)
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Define electric current Distinguish between conventional current and electron flow Use charge = current x time to solve problem Define the potential difference across a componen in a circuit Define resistance and use R = V : I to solve problem
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Use the proportionality between resistance, the length and cross sectional area of a wire to solve problems State ohms law Use the formula for the effective resistance of resistors in series and in parallel to solve problems
Electric current
A flow of electric charge from one place to another.(Aliran listrik yg mengalir dr satu tempat ke tempat lain) An electric current is a measure of the amount of charge flowing per unit time in a closed circuit. (arus listrik adalah jumlah muatan yg mengalir per satuan waktu di dalam rangkaian tertutup) Electric current formula: q q = electric charge(C) I = t = time(s) t I = electric current(Cs1 or A)
Solve problem1
When the started motor of a car is switched on for 0.5 s, 16 C of charge passes through (muatan melewati) the wires in the motor. Assuming the charge is uniformly trasmitted over the given time(dengan anggapan bahwa muatan ditransmisisikan secara bersama pd waktu diberikan),how large is the electric current?(brp besar arus listrik)
ANSWER1
Given : q = 16 C, t = 0.5 s Question : I = .......? Answer : q 16 I =  =  = 32 A t 0.5
ANSWER2
Given : q = 109 C, t = 103 s Question : I = ...? N = ...?( t = 1 s and e = 1.6 x 10 19 C) Answer : q 109 10 6 I =  =  = 10 6 A N = t 103 1.6 x 10 19 = 6.25 x 1012
B B

I

The direction of the conventional current from B to A (arah arus konvensional dari B ke A) A I B
+ + ++ ++
ELECTRIC CIRCUIT
AN OPENED CIRCUIT AND A CLOSED CIRCUIT
Potential Difference(Voltage)
The potential difference across a component a circuit(rangakaian) is difined as the work done to drive a unit charge through the component W W= work done (J) V = q = charge (C) q V = Voltage (V)
Solve problem1
When 2 C of charge flows through a potential difference of 8 V, how much energy is involved?
ANSWER1
Given: q = 2 C V = 8 V Question: W = .....? Answer : W = q X V = 2 X 8 = 16 J
Resistance
Resistance is defined as the ratio of the potential difference across the component to the current flowing through it. V V = potential difference (V) R = I = current (A) I R = resistance (ohm)
Solve problem1
a. A lamp draws a current of 0.25 A when it is connected to a 240 V source. What is the resistance of the lamp? b. Calculate the current flowing through a 5 ohm resistor when a potential difference of 2 V is applied across it.
ANSWER1(a)
a. Given : I = 0.25 V= 240 V Question : R = .....? Answer : V 240 R =  =  = 960 I 0.25
ANSWER1(b)
b. Given : R = 5 V = 2 V Question : I = ... ? Answer : V 2 I =  =  = 0.4 A R 5
60 5A 1A 100mA A
100A
0A Amperemeter
While positive cable connected to 1 A, then value of ammeter is 30/100 X 1 A = 0.3 A While positive cable connected to 100mA, then value of ammeter is 30/100 X 100 mA = 30 mA
5A 1A 100mA A A
60
100A
0A Amperemeter
While positive cable connected to 1 A, then value of ammeter is 70/100 X 1 A = 0.70 A While positive cable connected to 100mA, then value of ammeter is 70/100 X 100 mA = 70 mA Etc
12 V 9V 6V V
60
3V
0V Voltmeter
While positive cable connected to 3 V, then value(nilai) of voltmeter is 30/100 X 3 V = 0.9 V While positive cable connected to 12 V, then value of voltmeter is 30/100 X 12 V = 3.6 V
12 V 9V 6V V V
60
3V
0V Voltmeter
While positive cable connected to 3 V, then value of voltmeter is 80/100 X 3 V = 2.4 V While positive cable connected to 12 V, then value of voltmeter is 80/100 X 12 V = 9.6 V
Types of resistors
There are two kinds resistors namely Fixed(tetap/tertentu) resistor Variabe(berubah/variasi) resistor
Symbol of resistor
1. fixed resistor
2. variabel resistor
Resistance in wire
Factors affecting(mempengaruhi) resistanc(tahanan) in wire(kawat) are 1. The types of wire (=resistivity) 2. The lenght of wire ( l) 3. The thickness of wire ( A = cross sectional area)
Relationship
The resistance (R) of a uniform wire is directly proportional (berbanding lurus) to its length And inversely proportional (berbanding terbalik) to its cross sectional area (A) And too directly proportional to resistivity ()
Relationship formula between the resistance of wire(R) with resistivity(), length (l) and crosssectional (A) area of wire
l R = A R=resistance(ohm) l= length of wire(m) = resistivity(ohm m) A=crosssectional(m2)
Solve Problem 1
The diameter of the copper wire used in a circuit is 2 mm, if the resistivity for copper is 1.7 x 108 m, what is the resistance for 50 cm of this wire ?
Answer 1
Given : d =2mm = 2 x 103 m, = 1.7 x 108 m l = 50 cm = 5 x 101m Question : R =.......? Answer: A = r2 = 22/7 x (103)2 = 22/7 x 106 l 5 x 101 R =  = 1.7 x 108  = 2.7 x 103 A 22/7 x 106
Solve Problem 2
A wire with length (l) and crosssectional area (A) has resistance of 10 . What is the resistance of another wire made of the same material but with length 2l and cross sectional area 4A ?
Answer 2
Given : A2 =4A1, R1 =10 1 = 2 = l2 = 2 l 1 Question : R2 =.......? Answer: l 2l 10 =  and R2 =  = 1/2 (10) A 4A = 5 ohm
OHMS LAW
Ohms law states that the current through a metal conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across the ends of the conductor proveded that the physical condition and temperature remain constant
V
straight line V Gradient = I =R
KIRCHHOFFS LAW
In the singular circuits
I
L1
I1
L2
I2
L3
I3 I=I1=I2=I3
I1 I2 I3
Solve Problem 1
If I1= 2A, How large are I2,I3, I4 and I5
L1 L2 L3 L4 L5
Answer1
Given : I1 = 2A Question : I2 ,I3 ,I4 ,I5 = ....? Answer: I1 = I2 = I3= I4= I5 = 2A
Solve Problem 1
I1= 3A I2 =5A I3 = ...?
I5 = 2A
I4 = 20 A I6 = ....?
Answer2
Given : I1= 3A , I2 =5A , I4 = 20 A , I5 = 2A Questions: I3 = ...?, I6 = ....? Answer: I3 = I4 (I1+I2) = 20 (3+5) = 12 A
I6 = I4 I5 = 20 2 = 18 A
V = V1 + V2 + V3
I = I1= I2= I3 V=IxR
V1
V2
V3
2. Resistors in paralell R1 R2 R3
V1 = V2 = V3 = V I = I1 + I2 + I3 V1 V I1 =  = R1 R1 V2 V V3 V V V V V I2 =  =  , I3 =  =  ,  = + + R2 R2 R3 R3 RP R1 R2 R3 1 1 1 1  =  +  + RP R1 R2 R3
Solve Problem 1
R1 = 2 R2 = 12 R3 = 20 R4 = 22
Solve Problem 2
Total resistance = .....? Answer: 12 1 1 1 1 1  =  +  +  + 2 RP R1 R2 R3 R4 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 1 6 13  =  +  +  +  =  +  +  +  = RP 6 3 12 2 12 12 12 12 12 RP = 12/13
Solve Problem 3
4 3 5 6 7
2 Total resistance = .....? Answer: 1 1 1 2 1 3  =  +  =  +  = RP1 2 4 4 4 4 1 RP1 = 4/3 = 1  3