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Dynamic Electricity

Electric Current
The definition of electric current (Pengertian arus listrik) The previous lesson about electrosstatics ( listrik statis adalah)That a positive charge flows(arus)from a higher(tinggi) electric potential to lower(rendah) eletric potential

The direction of the conventional current from A to B(arah konvensional dari A ke B)


I
A
+ + -

e
The direction of motion of electron from B to A (arah gerak elektron dari B ke A)

Switch on

conventional current

electron current

The direction of conventional current is opposite to the direction flow (Arah arus konvensonal berlwanan dengan arah arus elektron)

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Define electric current Distinguish between conventional current and electron flow Use charge = current x time to solve problem Define the potential difference across a componen in a circuit Define resistance and use R = V : I to solve problem

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Use the proportionality between resistance, the length and cross sectional area of a wire to solve problems State ohms law Use the formula for the effective resistance of resistors in series and in parallel to solve problems

Electric current
A flow of electric charge from one place to another.(Aliran listrik yg mengalir dr satu tempat ke tempat lain) An electric current is a measure of the amount of charge flowing per unit time in a closed circuit. (arus listrik adalah jumlah muatan yg mengalir per satuan waktu di dalam rangkaian tertutup) Electric current formula: q q = electric charge(C) I = ---t = time(s) t I = electric current(Cs-1 or A)

Solve problem-1
When the started motor of a car is switched on for 0.5 s, 16 C of charge passes through (muatan melewati) the wires in the motor. Assuming the charge is uniformly trasmitted over the given time(dengan anggapan bahwa muatan ditransmisisikan secara bersama pd waktu diberikan),how large is the electric current?(brp besar arus listrik)

ANSWER-1
Given : q = 16 C, t = 0.5 s Question : I = .......? Answer : q 16 I = --- = ------- = 32 A t 0.5

Solve probleminduced(di induksika -2


By electrostatic induction(induksi elektrostatik), a charge of 10-9 C is n) on insulated(dibungkus) metal sphere(bola logam). If this amount of charge taken 10-3 s to flow through a galvanometer (a device for detected and measuring a small current), calculate ! a. the average(rata-rata) electric current indicated (yg ditunjukkan) by the galvanometer b. the number of electrons that pass through the galvanometer persecond (take the charge carried by each electron as 1.6 x 10-19 C)

ANSWER-2
Given : q = 10-9 C, t = 10-3 s Question : I = ...? N = ...?( t = 1 s and e = 1.6 x 10 -19 C) Answer : q 10-9 10 -6 I = --- = ------ = 10 -6 A N = --------------t 10-3 1.6 x 10 -19 = 6.25 x 1012

The direction of the conventional current


The direction of the conventional current is taken as the direction a positive charge would flow The direction of the conventional current is opposite to the direction of motion of electrons

The direction of the conventional current


The direction of the conventional current from A to B(arah konvensional dari A untuk B) A A
+ +

B B
-

The direction of motion of electron from B to A (arah gerak elektron dari B ke A)

The direction of the conventional current(arah konvensional saat ini)


The direction of the conventional current from B to A A B
---

I
-

The direction of motion of electron from A to B(arah gerak elektron dari A ke B)

The direction of the conventional current from B to A (arah arus konvensional dari B ke A) A I B
+ + ++ ++

The direction of the conventional current

The direction of motion of electron from A to B( arah gerak elektron dari A ke B )

ELECTRIC CIRCUIT
AN OPENED CIRCUIT AND A CLOSED CIRCUIT

AN OPENED CIRCUIT AND A CLOSED CIRCUIT


An opened circuit is a circuit at off position (no connected with voltage source) A closed circuit is a circuit at on position ( connected with voltage source)

An opened circuit schema


An opened circuit schema
L

L = lamp S = switch E = electromotive force (e m f)

A closed circuit schema


A closed circuit schema E =electromotive L force (e m f) L = lamp s S = switch

Potential Difference(Voltage)
The potential difference across a component a circuit(rangakaian) is difined as the work done to drive a unit charge through the component W W= work done (J) V = ----q = charge (C) q V = Voltage (V)

Solve problem-1
When 2 C of charge flows through a potential difference of 8 V, how much energy is involved?

ANSWER-1
Given: q = 2 C V = 8 V Question: W = .....? Answer : W = q X V = 2 X 8 = 16 J

Resistance
Resistance is defined as the ratio of the potential difference across the component to the current flowing through it. V V = potential difference (V) R = -----I = current (A) I R = resistance (ohm)

Solve problem-1
a. A lamp draws a current of 0.25 A when it is connected to a 240 V source. What is the resistance of the lamp? b. Calculate the current flowing through a 5 ohm resistor when a potential difference of 2 V is applied across it.

ANSWER-1(a)
a. Given : I = 0.25 V= 240 V Question : R = .....? Answer : V 240 R = ---- = ------- = 960 I 0.25

ANSWER-1(b)
b. Given : R = 5 V = 2 V Question : I = ... ? Answer : V 2 I = ------ = ------- = 0.4 A R 5

Measuring electric current


To measure the size of an electric current can be used by an ammeter or amperemeter The ammeter must be connected in series to the circuit

Measuring electric current

Measuring Potential Difference


The potential difference across two point in a circuit can be measured by a voltmeter The voltmeter must be connected in parallel to the component across which the potential difference is being measured

Measuring Potential Difference

How do you read the amperemeter?

60 5A 1A 100mA A

100A
0A Amperemeter

While positive cable connected to 1 A, then value of ammeter is 30/100 X 1 A = 0.3 A While positive cable connected to 100mA, then value of ammeter is 30/100 X 100 mA = 30 mA

How do you read the amperemeter?

5A 1A 100mA A A

60

100A
0A Amperemeter

While positive cable connected to 1 A, then value of ammeter is 70/100 X 1 A = 0.70 A While positive cable connected to 100mA, then value of ammeter is 70/100 X 100 mA = 70 mA Etc

How do you read the voltmeter?

12 V 9V 6V V

60

3V
0V Voltmeter

While positive cable connected to 3 V, then value(nilai) of voltmeter is 30/100 X 3 V = 0.9 V While positive cable connected to 12 V, then value of voltmeter is 30/100 X 12 V = 3.6 V

How do you read the voltmeter?

12 V 9V 6V V V

60

3V
0V Voltmeter

While positive cable connected to 3 V, then value of voltmeter is 80/100 X 3 V = 2.4 V While positive cable connected to 12 V, then value of voltmeter is 80/100 X 12 V = 9.6 V

Types of resistors
There are two kinds resistors namely Fixed(tetap/tertentu) resistor Variabe(berubah/variasi) resistor

Symbol of resistor
1. fixed resistor

2. variabel resistor

Resistance in wire
Factors affecting(mempengaruhi) resistanc(tahanan) in wire(kawat) are 1. The types of wire (=resistivity) 2. The lenght of wire ( l) 3. The thickness of wire ( A = cross sectional area)

Factors affecting resistance in wire are


A high resistivity wire has more resistance than a low resistivity wire A long wire has more resistance than a short wire A thin wire has more resistance than a thick wire

Relationship
The resistance (R) of a uniform wire is directly proportional (berbanding lurus) to its length And inversely proportional (berbanding terbalik) to its cross sectional area (A) And too directly proportional to resistivity ()

Relationship formula between the resistance of wire(R) with resistivity(), length (l) and crosssectional (A) area of wire
l R = -----A R=resistance(ohm) l= length of wire(m) = resistivity(ohm m) A=cross-sectional(m2)

Solve Problem -1
The diameter of the copper wire used in a circuit is 2 mm, if the resistivity for copper is 1.7 x 10-8 m, what is the resistance for 50 cm of this wire ?

Answer 1
Given : d =2mm = 2 x 10-3 m, = 1.7 x 10-8 m l = 50 cm = 5 x 10-1m Question : R =.......? Answer: A = r2 = 22/7 x (10-3)2 = 22/7 x 10-6 l 5 x 10-1 R = ----- = 1.7 x 10-8 ----------------------- = 2.7 x 10-3 A 22/7 x 10-6

Solve Problem -2
A wire with length (l) and cross-sectional area (A) has resistance of 10 . What is the resistance of another wire made of the same material but with length 2l and cross sectional area 4A ?

Answer 2
Given : A2 =4A1, R1 =10 1 = 2 = l2 = 2 l 1 Question : R2 =.......? Answer: l 2l 10 = ------- and R2 = ----- = 1/2 (10) A 4A = 5 ohm

OHMS LAW
Ohms law states that the current through a metal conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across the ends of the conductor proveded that the physical condition and temperature remain constant

The graph of Current(I) and the potential difference(V)


I

V
straight line V Gradient = --I =R

KIRCHHOFFS LAW
In the singular circuits
I
L1

I1
L2

I2
L3

I3 I=I1=I2=I3

In the complex circuits



L1 L2 L3

I1 I2 I3

I=I1+I2+I3 I enter = I exit

Solve Problem -1
If I1= 2A, How large are I2,I3, I4 and I5
L1 L2 L3 L4 L5

Answer-1
Given : I1 = 2A Question : I2 ,I3 ,I4 ,I5 = ....? Answer: I1 = I2 = I3= I4= I5 = 2A

Solve Problem -1
I1= 3A I2 =5A I3 = ...?

I5 = 2A
I4 = 20 A I6 = ....?

Answer-2
Given : I1= 3A , I2 =5A , I4 = 20 A , I5 = 2A Questions: I3 = ...?, I6 = ....? Answer: I3 = I4 (I1+I2) = 20 (3+5) = 12 A

I6 = I4 I5 = 20 2 = 18 A

Resistors in series and resistors in paralell


1. Resistors in series R1 R2 R3

V = V1 + V2 + V3
I = I1= I2= I3 V=IxR

V1

V2

V3

V1 = I x R1, V2 = I x R2, V3 = I x R3 I x R= I x R1+ I x R2 + I x R3, R =R1+ R2 + R3

2. Resistors in paralell R1 R2 R3

V1 = V2 = V3 = V I = I1 + I2 + I3 V1 V I1 = --- = --R1 R1 V2 V V3 V V V V V I2 = --- = --- , I3 = --- = --- , --- = ---+ ---+ --R2 R2 R3 R3 RP R1 R2 R3 1 1 1 1 --- = --- + --- + --RP R1 R2 R3

Solve Problem -1
R1 = 2 R2 = 12 R3 = 20 R4 = 22

Total resistance = .....? Answer: Rs = R1+ R2+ R3+ R4 = 2+12+20+22 =56

Solve Problem -2

Total resistance = .....? Answer: 12 1 1 1 1 1 --- = --- + --- + --- + --2 RP R1 R2 R3 R4 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 1 6 13 --- = --- + --- + --- + --- = --- + --- + --- + --- = --RP 6 3 12 2 12 12 12 12 12 RP = 12/13

Solve Problem -3
4 3 5 6 7

2 Total resistance = .....? Answer: 1 1 1 2 1 3 --- = --- + --- = --- + --- = --RP1 2 4 4 4 4 1 RP1 = 4/3 = 1 --- 3

Solve problem -3 (answer)


1 1 1 1 2 3 --- = --- + --- = --- + --- = --RP2 6 3 6 6 6 RP2 = 6/3 = 2 RT = R1+ RP1 + R4 + RP2 R7 1 1 RT = 3 + 1--- + 5 + 2 + 7 =18 ---