# ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING PRESENTATION

ANIRUDDHA MISHRA (111408) ANKIT PATHAK (111409) B.Tech. IInd YEAR CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

ERROR CALCULATIONS

Every
measurement of any value always has some error. Therefore.
. For example (20 ± 2)V. every time a result of an experiment should be presented in the following way: X ± ΔX [units].

METHODS OF ERROR CALCULATIONS
Mean value Standard deviation Error propagation Graphical data presentation The least squares method Regression errors
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MEAN VALUE
where X is the mean value. n is the number of experiments(repetitions). and the sum extends from 1 to n.
. xi are the results of individual experiments.1.

If the error exceeds 100 %. and therefore it is called the maximum error. something is VERY wrong
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•
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. Lets say the maximum difference of mean value is 1. This number is therefore taken as the experimental error.0 A.
Accuracy of MEAN VALUE
We need to find how accurate the mean value is.

. we can use the standard deviation to estimate the errors.2. Standard deviation
When we have performed more than at least 5 repetitions of an experiment.

•Standard deviation a statistical measure of the error. and can only be applied to a large series of data (many repetitions).
.

For example.
. Error propagation We often have values that depend on other values. voltage measured across a resistor depends on current across it.3.

4. we need to present our results graphically. Graphical data presentation
In some cases.
. and most often there is a mathematical function that theoretically describes the graph.

The least squares method
.
5.

Regression errors
•We need to measure how much the experimental value differs from the actual value. •For which there is introduced a coefficient of regression
.6.

Types of Errors & How to reduce them
.

3. 2.1.
Errors Gross error Systematic error Random error
.

I.
. Complete elimination is not possible. Gross error
Some gross error can be detected & some others cannot.

Types of gross errors Human Error Due to humans
a) may be due to misreading of instruments. b) Incorrect adjustments c) Improper application of instruments d) Computational mistakes etc. common in beginners
.

Remedy Take care in reading and recording measured data
Take at least three separate readings (preferably under conditions in which instruments are switched off-on) needs good practice
.

. vibration. Installation
error :
Due to improper applications faulty insulations is predominant if device used beyond limit Or if used in excess temp. pressure Or poor impedance matching
.

Remedy
Use devices according to the specifications recommended by manufactures
.

Zero error : If the instrument is not set to zero before taking measurement. Due to variation in ambient conditions Due to ageing
.

II. Systematic error
Relatively constant error frequency evident in direct observation
.

Irregularity of spring in galvanometers calibration error
.Types of Systematic errors
Instrumental error eg.

Remedy
Selecting a suitable instruments for the particular measurements according to applications
Applying correction factors after determining the amount of error.
Calibrating the instruments against a known standard
.

. temperature. Noise from electrical machine.
Environmental errors
Due to surroundings Eg. Magnetic field.

Remedy
By providing proper shielding.
.

Magnitude and direction not known
Expressed as average deviation of probale errors or standard deviation
.
Random Error or Uncertainty error Errors due to unknown Causes.

of readings and using statically method
.Remedy
Increase the no.

This is reasonable for large sample sizes and truly random errors
.III. Random Error
Random errors have different magnitude during subsequent measurements of the same quantity. random errors in a measurement cause a cluster of observed values. For well behaved systems. We will assume that random errors are normally distributed.