The Beginning of the Progressive

The Progressive Era: A Review of what you read

The History of Segregation

• Failures of Reconstruction allow racism to expand in the post-Civil War South…

Roots of Racism in the Gilded Age Failures of

– Sharecropping – Voting restrictions – Violence of the KKK

• African Americans move west looking for opportunity,

Jim Crow Laws

The concept of ‘Jim Crow’ came into existence by a white entertainer, Daddy Rice, who used to paint his face black while playing and dancing to traditional “black” music. It came to stand, in 1900, for segregation laws in the South in regard to:

• • • •

Education Health Care Entertainment Free Speech

Disfranchising African Americans
• Ways to prevent African Americans from voting:
– Poll Tax – Grandfather Clause – Literacy Test

Homer Plessy, a man who was 1/8 black, was jailed because he sat in a “white” railroad car. He refused to sit in the “colored” car and was immediately arrested.
• •

When his case was taken to court it established the infamous “separate but equal” doctrine...

Racism in North and South
• System of segregation continues until the Civil Rights period and are “enforced” by state authorities as well as groups like KKK
• More than 2,500 African Americans lynched between 1885 and 1900

• While segregation is not legal, racism is also present in the

Resistance to racism
Efforts to achieve equality for African Americans emerged in late 19th century, inspiring civil rights leaders for years to come
– Ida B. Wells (18621931) – Booker T.

Washington vs. DuBois
Booker T. Washington
– Born into slavery – Became teacher after Civil War; founded Tuskegee Institute (1881) in Alabama to help African Americans learn trades – Did not openly challenge segregation – Believed “self help” was the key to equality, even if it meant doing so in a separate community

W.E.B. DuBois
– Born after slavery into middle class family – Harvard-educated scholar – Encouraged African Americans to reject segregation – Believed educated African Americans (a.k.a. the “Talented Tenth”) should lead fight for equality; established NAACP in 1909 to lead reform movement

What similarities and differences existed between Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois in their fight for equality?

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