Database Management Systems

Presented By:Deepshikha Jaiswal (2011MCA022) Sourabh Kumar Kushawha (2011MCA020)

File System
File: A collection of records or documents dealing with one organization, person, area or subject.
Manual (paper) files Computer files

Drawbacks of File Systems
Data Redundancy Data Redundancy means same information is duplicated in several files. Data Inconsistency That means different copies of same basic data are existing. This occurs as the result of update operations that are not updating the same data stored at different places. Difficulty in Accessing Data It is not easy to retrieve information using a conventional file processing system. Data Isolation Data are scattered in various files, and the files may be in different format, writing new application program to retrieve data is difficult.  Continue…

This results in concurrent access anomalies.Continued… Integrity Problems The data values may need to satisfy some integrity constraints. We have to handle this through program code in file processing systems. Concurrent Access anomalies If multiple users are updating the same data simultaneously it will result in inconsistent data state. In file processing system it is very difficult to handle this using program code. Security Problems Enforcing Security Constraints in file processing system is very difficult as the application programs are added to the system in an ad-hoc manner. But in database we can declare the integrity constraints along with definition itself. For example the balance field Value must be grater than 5000. .

Bibliographic. It is usually managed by a program system called a „Database Management Systems or DBMS‟. Definition:A Database is a collection of data that represents the part of real world or A collection of similar records with relationships between the records.Database System To overcome the drawbacks of „File System‟ we introduced the concept of „Database Systems‟. images. etc. business data.:.g. E. statistical. .

rather. deleting and modifying data in the relations. Not all tables can suffer from these side-effects. or delete from) a table. It is important to remove these anomalies in order to perform different processing on the relations without any problem. Some important data may be lost if a relations is updated that contains database anomalies. insert into. undesired side-effects may follow. When an attempt is made to modify (update. . These anomalies affect the process of inserting. the sideeffects can only arise in tables that have not been sufficiently normalized.Database Anomalies Database anomalies are the problems in relations that occur due to redundancy in the relations.

Any change made to your data will require you to scan all records to make the changes multiple time. which are: UPDATION ANOMALY: .Types of Anomalies: There are three types of Anomalies. INSERTION ANOMALY: . . DELETION ANOMALY: .When you delete some information and lose valuable related information at the same time.When you insert a record without having it stored on the related record.

. thus a change of address for a particular employee will potentially need to be applied to multiple records (one for each of his skills). Specifically.Example: . the table provides conflicting answers to the question of what this particular employee's address is. and Skill.Update Anomaly Each record in an "Employees' Skills" table might contain an Employee ID. This phenomenon is known as an update anomaly. that is. the employee's address is updated on some records but not others— then the table is left in an inconsistent state. If the update is not carried through successfully—if. Employee Address.

Example: . . This phenomenon is known as an insertion anomaly. Faculty Hire Date. but we cannot record the details of a newly hired faculty member who has not yet been assigned to teach any courses except by setting the Course Code to null. and Course Code—thus we can record the details of any faculty member who teaches at least one course. Faculty Name.Insertion Anomaly Each record in a "Faculty and Their Courses" table might contain a Faculty ID.

This phenomenon is known as a deletion anomaly. The "Faculty and Their Courses" table described in the previous example suffers from this type of anomaly.Deletion Anomaly Under certain circumstances.Example: . we must delete the last of the records on which that faculty member appears. . effectively also deleting the faculty member. for if a faculty member temporarily ceases to be assigned to any courses. deletion of data representing certain facts necessitates deletion of data representing completely different facts.

which must be re-joined or linked each time a query is issued. Normalisation is a technique used for designing relational database tables to minimise duplication of information. Data is normalised in order to redundancy and inconsistency. Normalization generally involves splitting existing tables into multiple ones. . and to make it easier to maintain. F. Codd” in (1972).WHAT IS NORMALISATION?? Normalization process has proposed by “E.

Both of these are worthy goals as they reduce the amount of space a database consumes and ensure that data is logically stored.Normalisation provides rules that help:  Organise data efficiently  Ensure that only related data are stored in the table. . There are two goals of the normalization process:  Eliminate redundant data (for example. storing the same data in more than one table) and  Ensure data dependencies make sense.

etc.  Their functional dependency. foreign. .The entire normalization process is based upon:-  The analysis of tables.).  Their schemas. candidate.  Their keys (Primary.

. In practical application we will often see 1NF. These are referred to as normal forms and numbered from one to five. Along with the occasionally 4NF and 5NF is very rarely seen. 2NF. The data base community has developed a series of guidelines for ensuring that database are normalised. 3NF and BCNF.Normal form is a state of a relation that result by decomposing that relation for a design to avoid redundancy.


Needs a primary key. Each field name is also unique. Atomic data values.1st Normal Form A relation scheme is said to be in 1NF if only one value is associated with each attribute and the value of that attribute is not a set of values or a list of values. so each row can be unique. eliminates duplicate columns from the same table. Each row is uniquely identified. .


each non-key attribute in the relation must be functionally dependent upon the primary key. . The rules for second normal form are: The table must already be in first normal form. Non key attributes must depend on every part of the primary key.2nd Normal Form In order to be in Second Normal Form. Additionally. a relation must first fulfill the requirements to be in First Normal Form.

24 $1042.Example: Order # 1 2 3 4 Customer Acme Widgets ABC Corporation Acme Widgets Acme Widgets Contact Person John Doe Fred Flintstone John Doe John Doe Total $134. but not Second Normal Form: .23 $521.42 $928.53 The relation is in First Normal Form.

53 Acme Widgets ABC Corporation Acme Widgets Acme Widgets .23 $521.24 $1042.Customer Acme Widgets ABC Corporation Order # 1 2 3 4 Contact Person John Doe Fred Flintstone Customer Total $134.42 $928.

. contact person is dependent upon the primary key -. The second table only includes the information unique to each order. Someone interested in the contact person for each order could obtain this information by performing a JOIN Operation.customer name.Comment The creation of two separate tables eliminates the dependency problem experienced in the previous case. In the first table.


Remove columns that are not dependent upon the primary key. Meet all the requirements of the second normal form.3rd Normal Form Any transitive dependencies have been removed in 3NF. .


e. . OR To convert a 3NF into BCNF.BoyceCodd Normal Form A relation is in BCNF. that every determinant becomes a candidate key. if it is in 3NF and All of its determinants (i. decompose such. The attributes upon which other attributes depends) are Candidate keys.

„ROOM_NO‟ and „INTVR_ID‟ all have the property of being „Primary Key‟ or can say all are „Candidate Key‟ into the “INTERVIEW TABLE”. we will break it into two different tables. above „CANDIDATE_ID‟.Example: INTERVIEW TABLE CANDIDATE_ID INT_DATE INT_TIME INTVR_ID ROOM_NO Here. as definition of „BCNF‟. INTERVIEW TABLE CANDIDATE_ID INT_DATE INT_TIME INTVR_ID ROOM TABLE INTVR_ID INT_DATE ROOM_NO . So. “INTERVIEW TABLE” and “ROOM TABLE”.

isolation of independent multiple relationships.4th Normal Form Multi-valued dependencies are removed. i. A relation is in 4NF if it has no multi-valued dependencies.e. Meet all the requirements of the third normal form. .

Example: EMPLOYEE TABLE EMPLOYEE NAME Alexis Alexis Alexis Alexis Mathews Mathews Mathews Mathews PROJECT Microsoft Oracle Microsoft Oracle Intel Sybase Intel Sybase HOBBY Reading Music Music Reading Movies Riding Riding Movies .

Project and Hobby Table PROJECT NAME Alexis Alexis Mathews PROJECT Microsoft Oracle Intel HOBBY NAME Alexis Alexis Mathews Mathews HOBBY Reading Music Movies Riding Mathews Sybase .

The 4NF table is said to be 5NF if and only if every joint dependency in it is implied by the candidate keys. .5th Normal Form Any remaining anomalies are removed. In this normal form we isolate semantically related multiple relationships. The criteria of 5thNF is also known as PJNF( Project join normal form) and JPNF(Join Projection Normal Form). The table must be in 4NF Their must be no non trivial joint dependency that do not follow from key constraints .

Continue… . DEALERS JM Associate Shiv networks Star Sellers PRODUCT Sweets Shoes Magazine COMPANIES Cadbury Nike Times Hari Publishers Books KM Publication The above table shows some sample data.  Sweets should be manufactured by Cadbury company.Example:Dealers sell Product which can be manufactured by various companies. If you observe closely. a single record is created using lot of small information. So these three entities have a mutual relationship within them. For instance: JM Associate can sell sweets under the following two conditions:  JM Associate should be an authorized dealer of Cadbury. Dealers in order to sell the Product should be registered with the Company.

So in order for the above information to be “Fifth Normal Form” all the smaller information should be in three different places. DEALERS JM Associate PRODUCT Sweets DEALERS JM Associates Shiv Networks COMPANIES Cadbury Nike Shiv Networks Star Sellers Shoes Magazine Star Sellers Hari Publishers Times KM Publications Hari Publishers Books PRODUCT Sweets Shoes COMPANIES Cadbury Nike Magazine Books Times KM Publications .Continued… These two smaller bits of information form one record of the above given table. Below is the complete fifth normal form of the database.

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