MEMRISTOR and Memristive Nanoarchitectures

Ajmal Babu K A L7A Roll No.4

CONTENTS
          Introduction Symmetry of relationships Memristor theory How memristance works Crossbar architecture Device structure An Analytical Approach for Memristive Nanoarchitectures Complementary resistive switch Conclusion Reference

Ψ . q.INTRODUCTION  The three fundamental passive circuit elements are:• Capacitor • Resistor • Inductor L  Defined by four circuit variables:-i. v.

V I q=Cv Q Ψ .

Resistors V v=Ri I Capacitors q=Cv Q Ψ .

Resistors V v=dΨ/dt v=Ri i=dq/dt I Capacitors q=Cv Ψ=Li IndInductors ? Q ? Ψ .

dq/dt=I  1. Other three defines common circuit elements: dv/di=R Resistance dΨ/di=L Inductance dq/dv=C Capacitance dΨ/dq=? . dΨ/dt=V 2.INTRODUCTION  Possible combinations of two variables gives:1. 4. 2. 3.

CHUA in 1971. Memristor symbol Relationship diagram.O.INTRODUCTION  MEMRISTOR which connects Ψ and q.a professor of electrical engineering at California.O.CHUA . LEON. Proposed by LEON.

Resistors V v=dΨ/dt v=Ri i=dq/dt I Capacitors q=Cv Ψ=Li Inductors Ψ=Mq Q Memristors Ψ .

. MEMRISTOR is a contraction of “memory resistor”.  Analogy: a pipe through which water flows. INTRODUCTION  It can remember the current passing through it even after the current has disappeared.  The material: thin film of Titanium dioxide.  It is a two terminal device whose resistance depends on the magnitude and polarity of the voltage applied to it and the length of time that voltage has been applied.  The ability to indefinitely store resistance values means that MEMRISTOR can be used as a nonvolatile memory.

M(q)= d Ψ/dq  This can be written as: M(q)= (d Ψ/dt)/(dq/dt) = v /I  Thus M(q) has the unit of resistance.MEMRISTOR THEORY  The memristance function describes the charge-dependent rate of change of flux. .

a positive voltage is applied across two wires to be connected To open the switch the voltage is reversed. Any two crossing wires are connected by switch. To close the switch.How Memristance Works CROSSBAR ARCHITECTURE A crossbar architecture is a fully connected mesh of perpendicular wires. .

How Memristance Works .

deposited a 2-3nm layer of titanium metal which bonds strongly to the molecules. which is highly conducting.  Next assembled a dense film. .DEVICE STRUCTURE  Made by sandwiching a thin film of titanium dioxide TiO₂ between two platinum electrodes.  Oxidize the surface of the bottom Platinum wire to make an extremely thin layer of platinum dioxide.  Final layer was the top Platinum electrode. of specially designed switching molecules.  Over this. only one molecule thick.

increasing the % of conducting TiO2-x and thus the conductivity of the entire switch.How Memristor Works  A positive voltage on the switch repels the oxygen deficiencies in the metallic upper TiO2-x layer.  That causes the boundary between the two materials to move down. resistive TiO2 increases .there by making the switch as a whole resistive.the more conductive the cube becomes.  The more negative voltage is applied.sending them into the insulating TiO2 layer below.the less conductive the cube becomes.  The more positive voltage applied.  The amount of insulating.  A negative voltage on the switch attracts the positively charged oxygen bubbles.pulling them out of the TiO2. .

.  That is how the memristor “remembers” how much voltage was last applied. They stay where they are.positive or negative.the oxygen bubbles do not migrate.which means that the boundary between the two titanium dioxide layers is frozen.How Memristor memorizes  When the voltage turned off.

What Sets Memristor Apart?  Conventional devices use only 0 and 1.  By changing the speed and strength of the current.  Faster than Flash memory. it is possible to change the behaviour of the device. Memristor can use anything between 0 and 1. .  Innovating nanotechnology due to the fact that it performs better the smaller it becomes.  A soft and slow current causes it to act as an analog device.  A fast and hard current causes it to act as a digital device.

RHRS. RLRS.An Analytical Approach for Memristive Nanoarchitectures  The imposed limitation was addressed by Linn et al. to introduce logic “0” and logic “1. an LRS/HRS combination represents “1” and an HRS/LRS state represents “0.” As an example. and low resistance states (LRS).” . This structure is referred to as complementary resistive switch (CRS) The unique aspect of this device is in using a series of high resistance states (HRS). through adaptation     of two series memristive elements connected with opposing polarities.

 Device operating in -4 v to 4 v range .Complementary resistive switch  The CRS is fabricated using Ag/Tio2/Tio(2-x).

reset  For a write operation Vth.Working of CRS  For a read operation Vth.reset<Vwrite  Voltage below Vth.set<Vread<Vth.set does not alter device state .

 Memristor will change circuit design in the 21st century as radically as the transistor changed in the 20th .CONCLUSION  Research are going on for hardware circuit based memristors which emulates brain like function.  The first commercial circuit using memristor is to arrive within next three years.  It should be also 1000 or million times faster than running program on digital computer.  CRS array is less affected by the programing and read error rate that limit nanocrossbar array size compared to MEMRISTIVE array .

5. vol. March 2012  L. Kyoung-Rok Cho. 11. O. vol. 18. 2011. vol.A: Mater. Chua. no. 765–783. Sci.  www. Process. 1971.. “ An Analytical Approach for Memristive Nanoarchitectures”.org .  Omid Kavehei.References  L. Phys. pp. Sep. no. 2.” IEEE Trans. 507–519. 102. Chua.” Appl. pp. “Memristor—The missing circuit element. IEEE Transactions on nanotechnology.ieee.Circuit Theory.spectrum. Said Al-Sarawi. “Resistance switching memories are memristors. Kamran Eshraghian.

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