Pilot Navigation & Flt Planning

1:60 Rule Track Error & Closing Angle mental DR Use of Radio Aids Flight plan PNR & CP

Pilot Navigation

The rule is based on the premise that if a right angle triangle has a base line 60 units long, the value in degrees of the smaller enclosed angle is the same as the number of units in the shorter side of the triangle. A comparison with the actual angle errors of less than ½° for angles upto 9º 7 only 1º error at 16 º.By 20 º the error is 1 ½°,increasing rapidly at larger angles.Hence the usage is limited to 20 °



Paralleling Trk( OFFSET) .

Double Trk Error method .

2 TE Correction .

TE+ CA Method .

TE + CA To Dest/WPT .

A.Std C. (It is applicable to low flying. high speed jet A/C only). .



5 15 26 37 50 64 80 100 130 150 .1 TAS from RAS: Ht in Ft 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000 % added to RAS 7.Mental DR.

Mno> . Multiply the indicated Mno ( to two decimal places ) by 600 or by 6 ignoring decimal.60 add 2Kts/ subtract 2 Kts for each 1000Ft as in b. this method is reasonably accurate upto 40000 Ft & speeds upto Mach 1: a. or subtract 1kt per 1000 Ft above 25000 Ft.Mental DR-2 TAS from Mach No: Assuming ISA conditions. . If the Mno is . c. b.60 or less add 1Kt for each 1000 Ft below 25000 Ft.

Wind Factor Chart .

Effective Wind .

Radio Fixing .

3P/L Fix .

3P/L Running Fix .

Enroute .RMI .

RMI-Trk In / Trk Out .

Tracking In On RMI .

Tracking In On RMI .

RMI-Tracking Out .

RMI-Tracking Out .

ADF indications .



Principles of Flt Planning a) Selection of route b) Met planning c) A/C performance d) Cruise control .

Route Planning .


Computarised Flight Plan ( at altn) .

even to the extent of rejecting an erroneous non-flyable plan. Flt Planning Air India is a licensed user of the PHOENIX flt planning system which is provided by EDS( Electronic Data system). .Comp.The program is designed to produce a safe & cost sensitive flt plan.

options of different climb. alternate. max.weather data etc. taxi-out wt.Each of our aircraft is identified by its own registration.Stored information includes preferred route or route selection. •Aircraft Record( ACR). engine model etc .cruise profiles. LDW.Main elements of ‘ PHOENIX ‘ are: •Flight Leg Record(FLR). ZFW. min/max FLT LVL. A default record defines the company operating policy & limitations on MTOW. ICAO/FAA flt plan.The same route (city pair ) may have upto two more options with different parameters.Selcal. cruise & descent profiles. residual fuel.fuel tank capacity.

•Aircraft Performance( ACP). •Weather. Flt Planning(contd.This database contains performance data for all aircraft types & engines as required by the airline .Comp.Maryland & UK met Office at Bracknell supply the data. STARs & SIDs of major airports of length 5000 ft or more. The US National Meteorological Centre. Any Class I/ II Notams can be processed online.) •Navigation : The Nav database holds worldwide information regarding airways. WPT coordinates. radio aids.Database contains upper air information such as winds. temp. tropopause levels etc. Air India uses the latter source( Maryland being the alternate source). . Both the MET Offices deliver data twice a day.This data is supplied by the manufacturers & neds to be verified locally for nonstandard configuration.. This information is supplied by Jeppesen & it is automatically updated every 28 days as per AIRAC cycle date.

reserve 4000kgs complete the flt plan 7 calculate: a) time & distance for PNR to A b) time & distance for CP between A & D. Find Out + Home fuel for each leg. FOB 23000kgs. Complete the flt plan.75. Find PNR . Steps:( Std temp at F330 = -51deg C).75. Evolve TAS from M0.Complete temp column.Flt Plan : PNR & CP 3700 Flt from A to D: cruise at M 0.

Flt Plan : PNR & CP .

Finding CP CP between B & C: 58½ 102 ½ = d  365= t 56 d= 208 nm t =32 min .

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