WHISTLE BLOWING

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PresentedChawla A. Wines Priya by ~ Lisa Ahsan Kamwani Mariyam abbasi

Whistle-blowing

former employee. health/safety violations. rule.Definition of Whistle-Blowing Whistle blowing can be defined as “an attempt by an employee or former employee of an organization to disclose what he or she believes to be wrongdoings in or by the organization” Another definition of whistle blowing is “the disclosure of illegal. Generally the misconduct is a violation of law. unethical or harmful practices in the workplace to parties who might take action A whistleblower is an employee. such as fraud. or member of an organization. especially a business or government agency. regulation and/or a direct threat to public interest. and corruption . who reports misconduct to people or entities that have the power and presumed willingness to take corrective action.

. External WhistleBlowing  When and individual advocates beliefs or revelations outside the organization.Types of Whistle-Blowing Internal WhistleBlowing  When an individual advocates beliefs or revelations within the organization.

Impersonal WhistleBlowing  It is impersonal if harm observed is done to another party. .Personal WhistleBlowing  It is personal if harm is reportedly done only to the whistle blower.

Types of whistle blowers • Current whistleblower: someone who blow the whistle on a present employer/employers • Alumni whistleblower: someone who blow the whistle on a former employer/employers • Open whistleblower: reveals her or his identity and/or makes no attempt to hide this. • Anonymous whistleblower: acts specifically to keeps her or his identity a secret .

. incentives etc • leads to benefits of the company e. the wrong usage of resources by corrupted person is minimized and now these resources can be used in productive manner.Advantages of whistle blowing • • • • Public Safety Moral Responsibility End of unethical business practices Rewarding the whistleblower for complaining like bonuses.g. promotions.

Disadvantages of whistle blowing • • • • Retaliation Conflicts of Interest Effecting the environment Even the claims of whistle blowers are not always genuine and sometimes a person may be doing it for their selfish reasons • Costly .

Whistleblowers: Examples • The insider’ • Karen Silkwood. “Silkwood” • ‘Mark Whiteacre’ .

though Wigand was still bound by a confidentiality agreement not to discuss his employment with the company. On the other hand. Unable to see an honest man being held due to the fault of his corporation.THE INSIDER: • The Insider (1999) is a true story based on an Ex-tobacco executive who planned to whistle blow against his company Brown & Williamson. Not long after he was fired by Brown and Williamson. a producer for 60 Minutes who worked closely with journalist ‘Wallace’. New York Post and Wall Street Journal gets information about previous events of the wigand’s life and they start an investigation against him. Despite Wigand's willingness to talk. • . The film illustrates how tobacco manufacturers are exploiting the consumers by not letting them know what happens next after smoking. Bergman leaks the news to the press. CBS pulled his interview from at the last minute after B&W threatened a multi-billion dollar lawsuit. Wigand was fired. New York Times publishes the interview and criticises B&W in running a low level smear campaign against a true person.after the testimony of the Wigand in the court. Wigand came into contact with Lowell Bergman . Bergman arranged for Wigand to be interviewed by Wallace for a 60 Minutes expose on the cigarette industry. B&W starts a smear campaign to disgrace the Wigand.

Oklahoma. magazine and newspaper articles. her story has achieved worldwide fame as the subject of many books. and Atomic Workers' Union in the early ’70s & was in charge of investigating the health and safety concerns of workers at the plant. She never arrived. investigators found that several surfaces in her house had been contaminated with plutonium. and a member of the Oil. There were no documents to be found.‘KAREN SILKWOOD’ • Karen Silkwood was a chemical technician at the Kerr-McGee's plutonium fuels production plant in Crescent. Unable to determine where she had been exposed. Silkwood decided to show her evidence to The New York Times. Kerr-McGee claimed she was deliberately exposing herself to create sympathy. 1974 in a fatal one-car crash. She reported her concerns to The Atomic Energy Commission. Frustrated and afraid for her and her family’s health. while Silkwood assumed the company was giving her contaminated testing equipment. Almost immediately after she went to AEC. and even a major motion picture • • • . Silkwood tested positive for massive plutonium exposure. She left a union meeting with binders and documents to meet the reporters. The circumstances of her death have been the subject of great speculation. Police found her car run off the road and Silkwood dead inside. hoping that Kerr-McGee would make their workplace safer. Silkwood found what she believed were major violations of health and safety regulations. . The case remains controversial and Kerr-McGee has always denied any wrong doing Karen Silkwood died on November 13. Chemical. Since then. Despite the company’s assurances.

His evidence led to hundreds of millions of dollars in fines to the companies involved. happily married. Whitacre went undercover for the FBI and secretly recorded hundreds of meetings all over the world to expose the plot. Along with several major Agribusiness companies from around the world. Whitacre went to the FBI with details of the plan. and a rising star at his company. Unfortunately. He was rich. Whitacre would still probably be remembered as a great whistleblower. he was president of their Bio products Division which oversaw the use of food additives.MARK WHITEACRE • In 1992. so he ended up in jail himself. Mark Whitacre was on top of the world. Whitacre was also busy embezzling $9 million dollars from the company at the time. For the next three years. If that had been the end of it. An executive at food industry giant Archers Daniel Midland. Under pressure from his wife. But things changed dramatically that year when he became involved in an international scheme to fix the price of additives such as lysine and citric acid. ADM artificially set the world price for these additives and committed one of the biggest corporate crimes in American history . but he went one step further. • .

and positive reputations. restitution. health.Effects of WhistleBlowing • Forced to leave organization/demoti on • Credibility ruined • Family. • Incarceration . and/or life in jeopardy • Outrage and divisiveness of people directly or indirectly involved • Physical or psychological isolation • Organization experiences loss of money. productivity.

000 metric tons sugar are "tailor-made" to suit a particular Dubaibased refinery. Moeen Aftab Sheikh. by selling huge quantities of steel at low prices. Procurement of GRP pipe for Port Qasim Authority by Frontier Works Organisation at a higher rate from Iran than the price quoted by a Saudi company in its tender documents. causing a loss of about Rs3 billion. USAID stop funding the to Rafi Peer theatre on tips of corruption. Malik riaz planted interview with Mehar Bukhari and Mubashir Lukman • • • • • . The tender documents floated by TCP in 2011 for the import of 350.EXAMPLES IN PAKISTAN • Ministry of Water and Power paid Rs225 for a bulb available in the open market for Rs140. owned by Riaz Laljee. gave undue favours to Al Abbas Group of Companies.

Laws regarding whistle blowing in Pakistan • In Pakistan there are no laws to protect civil servants or private sector employee according to Global Integrity Report. .

Research Findings on Organizational and Personal Variables that lead to Whistle blowing • Variables that are positively related to whistle blowing • Informal Company Policies • Formal Company Policies • Supervisor Support • Highly competent and respected employee .

. • ‘ Voice and Exit are the two main options for dissatisfied organization members and that those who exercise the choice are more loyal than to one who decide to exit.Issue Relating to Whistle blowing • If you blow the whistle then you are not loyal to your organization or employer.’ – Albert O Hirschman.

• Example: Karen Silkwood • From Kantian approach you should blow the whistle if company is involve in immoral practices.  Utilitarian • Greatest good for greatest number.Ethical Perspective  Deontological ethics • Deontological ethics is basically a duty based ethics which says that you should fulfill your moral obligations whether it lead to pleasure or pain. • Example : Karen Silkwood . From Kantian approach you should blow the whistle if company is involve in immoral practices.

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