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Chapter 2

Wireless LANs
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15.1 IEEE 802.11


Architecture
Physical Layer MAC Layer Addressing Mechanism

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Figure 15.1

BSSs

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Figure 15.2

ESS

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Figure 15.3

Physical layer specifications

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Figure 15.4

FHSS

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Figure 15.5

DSSS

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Figure 15.6

MAC layers in IEEE 802.11 standard

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Figure 15.7

CSMA/CA flowchart

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Figure 15.8

CSMA/CA and NAV

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Figure 15.9

Frame format

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Table 15.1 Subfields in FC field


Field Version Type Subtype To DS From DS More flag Retry The current version is 0. Type of information: management (00), control (01), or data (10). Defines the subtype of each type (see ). Defined later. Defined later. When set to 1, means more fragments. When set to 1, means retransmitted frame. Explanation

Pwr mgt
More data WEP Rsvd

When set to 1, means station is in power management mode.


When set to 1, means station has more data to send. Wired equivalent privacy. When set to 1, means encryption implemented. Reserved.

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Figure 15.10

Control frames

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Table 14.2 Values of subfields in control frames


Subtype 1011 Request to send (RTS) Meaning

1100
1101

Clear to send (CTS)


Acknowledgment (ACK)

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Table 15.1 Subfields in FC field


To DS 0 0 1 1 From DS 0 1 0 1 Address 1 Destination station Destination station Receiving AP Receiving AP Address 2 Source station Sending AP Source station Sending AP Address 3 BSS ID Source station Destination station Destination station Address 4 N/A N/A N/A Source station

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Figure 15.11 Addressing mechanism: case 1

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Figure 15.12 Addressing mechanism: case 2

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Figure 15.13 Addressing mechanism: case 3

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Figure 15.14 Addressing mechanism: case 4

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15.2 Bluetooth
Architecture Radio Layer Baseband Layer L2CAP Layer Other Upper Layers
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Figure 15.15

Piconet

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Figure 15.16

Scatternet

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Figure 15.17

Bluetooth layers

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Figure 15.18

Single-slave communication

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Figure 15.19

Multiple-slave communication

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Figure 15.20

Frame format types

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Figure 15.21

L2CAP data packet format

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