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Renewable energy

Early Irrigation Waterwheel

Early Roman Water Mill

Early Norse Water Mill

World’s Largest Dams .

Three gorges dam-18200MW .

Three gorges dam-18200MW .

and water for drinking.• a generating station which utilizes the potential energy of water at a high level for generation of electrical energy is known as hydro-electric power station. Hydro electric power station . storage of water for irrigation. • water is led to water turbine • potential • energy is converted into kinetic energy • kinetic energy is converted to the mechanical energy by allowing the water to flow through the hydraulic turbine runner • becoming more popular because limited oil reserves • importance due to flood control. • water head is created by constructing a dam across a river or lake.

• power developed - .

Lay out of hydro electric power plant .

.• The generation of electric energy from falling water is only a small process -Hydrological cycle” or rain evaporation cycle” This cycle is shown in figure.

Water cycle .

• Due to this. • On cooling. these water vapours form clouds. The capital cost of erecting and maintaining the transmission lines and the annual power loss . evaporation of water takes.• The input to this cycle is the solar energy. the following factors must be thoroughly analyzed -1. Further cooling makes the clouds to fall down in the form of rain. known as precipitation • Before a water power site is considered for development. The capital cost of the total plant. -2. and snow etc.

The plant can be run up and synchronized in a few minutes. • Inspite of the above factors. following advantages which make these suitable for large interconnected electric system: -1.-3. The load can be varied quickly and the rapidly changing load demands can be met without any difficulty. oil or gas plants which can be conveniently set up near the load center. The plant is highly reliable and its maintenance and operation charges are very low. . -2. -3. The cost of electric generation compared with steam.

. The hydro-electric plant takes much longer in design and execution. These plants are usually located in hilly areas far away from the load center. No fuel charges.-4. -4. -5. Transformation and transmission costs are very high. -7. The cost of generation of electricity varies little with the passage of time. The efficiency of the plant does not change with age. -6. • the hydro-electric power plants have the following disadvantages also: -1. -3. -2. The capital cost of the plant is very high. The plant has no stand by losses.

The output of a hydro-electric plant is never constant due to An unpredictable change of monsoons(A seasonal wind in southern Asia.-5. blows from the southwest (bringing rain) in summer and from the northeast in winter) and their dependence on the rate of water flow in a river. .

• The portion of the total precipitation that flows through the catchment area is known as “Run-off”. draining water into the reservoir.RUN-OFF -Defined as the total condensation of moisture that reaches the earth in any form • includes all forms of rains. . and snow etc -Run-off = Total precipitation – Total evaporation • The unit of run-off are m3/s • Day-second meter • Rain-fall is measured in terms of centimeters of water over a given area and over a given period (usually one year). ice. • The catchment area of a hydro site is the total area behind the dam.

.Factors Affecting Runoff 1.Topography of Catchments Area -Steep.Geology of Area -Rocky areas will give more run-off .The water will flow quickly and absorption and evaporation losses will be small 3.Nature of Precipitation -Rains lasting a longer time results in larger run-off -Humid atmospheres 2.

4. . -Evaporation and seepage are increased by cultivation 6.Meteorology.Vegetation.Large areas will give more run-off .Size and Shape of Area. 5. -Run-off increases with low temperature.

Measurement of Run-Off 1. .Actual Measurement.From Rain-Fall Records.Empirical Formulas. 3. 2.

days. weeks or months .HYDROGRAPH AND FLOW DURATION CURVE • A hydrograph indicates the variation of discharge or flow with time. • It is plotted with flows as • ordinates and time intervals as abscissas. • The flow is in m3/sec and the time may be in hours.

• Abscissa can be day.THE MASS CURVE • Indicates total volume of run-off in cubic meters upto a certain time. • Or the mass curve is to compute the capacity of the reservoir for a hydro site. month or year and cumulative volume of flow as ordinate .


. Pondage • Power demand fluctuates with time • If power plant is away from reservoir • Capacity of pond should be sufficient to coup with hourly changes for 24 hour.Storage of water • Wide variations in flow of • In order to ensure generation throughout the year.

• 3. . Inlet water way. • 2. • 6. • 4. Catchment area. Tail race or outlet water way. Power house. • 5. Dam and intake house. Reservoir.ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF A WATERPOWER PLANT • 1.

.2. Inlet water way -the passages. forebays and penstocks and also surge tanks. canals. Reservoir. tunnels. . through which the water is conveyed to the turbines from the dam. -The difference between these elevations (the water levels in the forebay and the tailbay) is called head -high-head (800 or more feet) -medium-head (100 to 800 feet) low-head (less than 100 feet) 4. Dam -Are built to create head • Head -Water must fall from a higher elevation to a lower one to release its stored energy.A forebay is an enlarged passage for drawing the water from the reservoir -Tunnels are of two types: pressure type and non-pressure type. -The purpose of the storing of water in the reservoir is to get a uniform power output throughout the year 3.

• 6. Tail Race or Outlet Water Way -Tail race is a passage for discharging the water leaving the turbines .


Constituents of hydro electric power plant • Spillways -when river flow exceeds the storage limits • Surge tanks -pipe to absorb sudden rises of pressure as well as to quickly provide extra water during a brief drop in pressure -at high or medium head .

or an enclosed pipe that delivers water to hydraulic turbines -concrete: less than 30m -steel : any head -thickness increases with head or working pressure .• Penstocke -A gate that controls water flow.

and crossflow turbines . Francis.Classification of Hydro Turbines • Reaction Turbines – Derive power from pressure drop across turbine – Totally immersed in water – Angular & linear motion converted to shaft power – Propeller. Turgo. and Kaplan turbines • Impulse Turbines – Convert kinetic energy of water jet hitting buckets – High heads – No pressure drop across turbines – Pelton.


Francis Turbine .

Propeller Turbine .

Kaplan turbine .

Pelton wheel turbine .

Turgo turbine .

Turbine Design Ranges • • • • Kaplan Francis Pelton Turgo 2 < H < 40 10 < H < 350 50 < H < 1300 50 < H < 250 (H = head in meters) .

Design considerations .

Efficiency of Hydropower Plants • Hydropower is very efficient – Efficiency = (electrical power delivered to the “busbar”) ÷ (potential energy of head water) • Typical losses are due to – Frictional drag and turbulence of flow – Friction and magnetic losses in turbine & generator • Overall efficiency ranges from 75-95% .

Examples • A hydro electric generating station is supplied from a reservoir of capacity 5*106m3/sec at head of 200meters. Solution. wattsec .  Q= 5*106m3/sec  H= 200meters  Efficiency= 75%  W=(5*106)(1000). (mass of 1m3 of water is 1000kg)  Electrical energy available=W*H*efficiency. Find the total energy available in kWh if the overall efficiency is 75%.

W=94*1000=94000kg/sec.Ex: it has been estimated that the min run off of approximately 94m3/sec will be available at a hydro electric project with head of 39m. Determine(1) firm capacity (2) yearly gross o/p. Head=39m Work done per sec=w*H=94000*9.81*39=35963kW (1)Firm capacity=plant efficiency*gross plant capacity=0. assume efficiency of the plant to be 80% Sol: Weight of water available.8*35963=28770kW (2)Yearly gross o/p=28770*8760=252*106kWh .

Calculate energy generated per hour per cubic meter of water if the hydraulic efficiency be 0.• Water for hydro electric station is obtained from reservoir with head of 100m.86 and electrical efficiency 0.92. .