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Mirror Halves

Mirror Halves

made of fine clays. used for walls. are less hard and more porous but very popular for economic and aesthetic reasons. and very hard. asphalt. made of natural clays. are usually machine-pressed. and even cork.  Tiles traditionally have been made of glazed or unglazed fired clay. floors. . glass. but modern tiles are also made of plastic.thin. and countertops.  Quarry tiles (used for flooring) and terra-cotta.  Ceramic tiles.Tiles  Tile:. flat slab or block used structurally or decoratively in building are called tiles.

Holland. were especially renowned.  Modern clay roofing tiles may be flat or curved. blue-painted tiles from Delft. .Tiles  By the 15th century. are common. tilework was used widely in northern Europe.  Modern wall tiles may be highly glazed and semivitreous. in the Mediterranean countries.  S-shaped tiles laid with alternate convex and concave surfaces uppermost.

Rotterdam . late 16th century. in the Museum Boymans-van Beuningen.Azulejos from Seville. Rotterdam Courtesy of Museum Boymans-van Beuningen.

(13–15 cm) square. .  Early designs were geometric and 5–6 in.  Azulejos were used in Islamic architecture for facing walls and paving floors.  In the 15th–16th centuries Portugal imported the tiles from Spain for use in religious and private buildings.Tiles  Introduced into Spain by the Arabs during the Moorish occupation.

Mex. were covered with azulejos in brilliant colours on a scale unequaled elsewhere.Tiles  The Portuguese exported them in the 17th century to the Azores. and Brazil.  In the 18th century. interiors and exteriors in Puebla. Madeira. and the Spaniards introduced them to their American colonies.. .

 Depending on the clay and the firing temperature.  Tiles can also be slip cast. or formed by pouring slip (liquid clay) into a porous mold and allowing it to stiffen.Tiles  Tiles are usually formed by pressing moist clay into a mold. highly vitrified porcelain. modern floor tiles are often machine pressed from fine-grained clay. . fired tiles range from porous earthenware to hard.  Glaze and metal oxide–painted designs may be added before the tile is fired.

In medieval China. clay tile roofs were superseded by roofs of lead. tiles of clay and of gilded bronze were used for roofs.  In medieval northern Europe. but in southern Europe red and orange clay roof tiles continued in wide use. and stone.  Unglazed roof tiles were often black (those in Japan. . in Rome.  Modern architects sometimes employ large castcement roof tiles. brilliantly glazed roof tiles (often yellow) with heavy relief ornament were used for temples. zinc.Tiles  Tile roofs of clay and (for temples) marble were used in ancient Greece. gray). suggesting a different firing method from that used for European tiles.

Modern architects can choose from a wide range of glazed and unglazed.  Unglazed tiles have also been used for wall decoration since ancient times. overlapping S-shaped tiles. . see the Bibliography. Floor coverings. shinglelike tiles (sometimes of stone). and they often commission handmade tile murals from artistpotters. and flat. sections Building construction.Tiles  The three common systems for tile roofs are an underlayer of concave tiles covered at the joints by an overlayer of convex tiles. smooth and textured wall tiles.  For further information on this topic.

green. . tile floors became common only in the late Middle Ages. In the 16th century encaustic tile was displaced by Italian and Spanish majolica floor tiles (see POTTERY).  The floors of 13th-century cathedrals were often of encaustic tile (reddish clay tiles inlaid with patterns in white and yellow clay).Tiles  Although mosaic tile floors were known in ancient times. and yellow tiles. French churches of the 12th century had mosaic floors in black.

machine-pressed tiles in various colors. but in the 18th century. The most common modern ceramic floor tiles are small. quarry tiles (plain red tiles) came into widespread use.TILES Tile floors gave way to wood and marble floors in the 17th century. highly vitrified. .

.Tiles  The most spectacular ancient tile and tilelike walls were the brilliantly colored glazed-brick and glazedtile murals of Mesopotamia. Medieval Iran became a center for Islamic tiles. and Babylonia.  Deep relief decoration characterized the glazed wall tiles of China. glazed and painted in floral and calligraphic designs. Assyria.

manganese purple. brown-.  First made in the Netherlands. delft tiles were admired for their vigorous painting in cobalt blue and. . and yellow-glazed tiles. In 14th-century Germany. these were displaced after about 1600 by stoves of blue-and-white delftware tile. large heating stoves were made of green-.TILES  Spain became famous for its lusterware and majolica tiles. later.

Types Of tiles .

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ACUTE angle RIGHT angle .

OBTUSE angle STARIGHT angle .

REFLEX angle .

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SQUARE AREA= L x B PERIMETRE=4L RECTANGLE AREA=L X B PERIMETRE=2 X(L+B) .

TRIANGLE AREA=1/2BASE X PERPNDICULAR HIGHT CIRCLE DIAMETRE=2r .

PARTS OF CIRCLE RADIUS DIAMETRE ARC SECTOR CHORD SEGMENT .