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Motivation in a Project Environment

TCM 710 – Project Leadership Overview of Chapter 2 – Volume 2
From:
Verma, Vijay . The Human Aspects of Project Management – Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager, Volume Two. Upper Darby, PA: Project Management Institute.

▫ The six core phases in the motivational process Identify a person’s needs Create drives Select goal-directed behavior Perform the task Receive feedback Reassess needs and goals ▫ Complications in the motivational process     Page 56 Motives can only be inferred and cannot be seen Needs are dynamic in nature People rank and select their motives differently People apply different energy levels in pursuing their motives . goal-directed manner.General Overview of Motivation • What is motivation? • Basic motivational process       ▫ Internal drives within a person that causes that person to willingly devote extra effort in a specific.

love and belonging  Esteem needs: self-respect. acceptance. and personal sense of achievement  Self-actualization needs: a person’s drive to become what he or she is capable of becoming – lifelong process ▫ ERG Needs Theory  Existence needs: material needs – food. salary. water. working conditions  Relatedness needs: social needs – establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships  Growth needs: esteem/self-actualization – individual’s efforts to explore opportunities for personal development and growth Page 60 . friendship. shelter. water. autonomy. self-worth.Theories of Motivation • Content theories of motivation (within) ▫ Hierarchy of Needs Theory  Physiological needs: food. and shelter  Safety and security needs: safety. stability and protection from physical/emotional harm  Social or affiliation needs: affection.

growth and sense of responsibility ▫ Achievement Motivation Theory  The need for achievement: the drive to excel. supervisors and subordinates. succeed and achieve performance standards  The need for power: to influence the behavior of others  The need for affiliation or association: desire for friendly and close personal relationships at work Page 64 . achievement. working conditions. relationships with peers.Theories of Motivation • Content theories of motivation (within) ▫ Motivator/Hygiene Theory  Hygiene Factors: compensation. recognition. level of supervision  Maintenance factors  Motivating factors: opportunity for advancement.

imaginative. motivated by lower level needs  Theory Y: high performance expectations.Theories of Motivation • Process theories of motivation ▫ Theory X-Theory Y  Theory X: dislike work and avoid it. lack ambition and little capacity for problem solving or creative thinking. ambitious and committed to goals. motivated by higher needs  People have a central need to achieve a sense of competence and this need continues to motivate people even after competence is achieved  Good fit between task and organization leads to competence  Intention to work toward a goal as a major source of job motivation  Motivation comes from an individual’s internal drive and desire to achieve goals ▫ Contingency Theory ▫ Goal-Setting Theory Page 70 . creative. self-disciplined.

performancereward linkage.Theories of Motivation • Process theories of motivation ▫ Expectancy Theory  Assumes people think seriously about how much effort they should put into a task before doing it  Depends upon: effort-performance linkage. and valence ▫ Reinforcement Theory  Human behavior is shaped by the previous positive or negative outcomes of experienced by a person ▫ Equity Theory  People are motivated by their desire to be treated equitably  Perception of unfair allocation of rewards leads to conflict and problems Page 73 .

and gaining satisfaction from it ▫ Sense of responsibility Page 76 . discussion and popularity  Getting work out. staying on top of routine demands.Motivation and Project Management • The project manager’s “motivation to manage” ▫ Favorable attitude toward authority  To achieve excellence  Helps PM obtain support for their actions ▫ Desire to compete with other managers ▫ Desire to exercise power ▫ Desire for a distinctive position  Ability to take charge. make decisions and even take disciplinary action when necessary  Acquired by taking a position of high visibility and by initiating things that invite attentions.

teamwork. effective communication. the gaining status through project performance and the ability to influence that results from that status  Promotions and increase in remuneration ▫ Work content  Participants can be motivated by the intellectual challenge of their tasks. and a clear understanding of plans and expectations ▫ Project reward system  Non-monetary – recognition by peers and other stakeholders.Motivation and Project Management • Why does motivation depend upon? ▫ Project culture  Stresses openness. working on a variety of projects. work-related travel opportunities and networking ▫ Environment  Availability of support systems and enthusiastic PM’s ▫ Supervision  Impacted by quality and quantity or supervision ▫ Previous success ▫ Competition  Between teams and other organizations ▫ Believing in what you do  Most powerful intrinsic motivator Page 77 .

Guidelines for Creating a Motivational Project Environment • Factors related to project tasks/jobs  Incorporates Herzberg’s essentials of a “good” job ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Page 78 Direct feedback Client relationship New learning Scheduling Unique expertise Direct communications authority Personal accountability .

▫ Encourage employee to set their own goals ▫ Relate tasks to personal and organizational goals ▫ Clarify expectations and ensure that project team members understand them ▫ Encourage project participants to engage in novel and challenge activities ▫ Don’t eliminate anxiety completely • Factors related to project managers Page 79 .Guidelines for Creating a Motivational Project Environment • Factors related to personal drives ▫ PM must create an environment that enhances motivating factors and eliminates conditions that may keep people from producing their best work ▫ Use appropriate methods of reinforcement ▫ Eliminate unnecessary threats and punishments ▫ Assign project personnel some responsibility and hold them accountable.

no matter how small ▫ Demonstrate your own motivation through behavior and attitude ▫ Criticize behavior. not people Page 80 .Guidelines for Creating a Motivational Project Environment • Factors related to project managers ▫ Don’t believe that “liking” is always correlated with positive performance ▫ Individualize your supervision ▫ Provide immediate and relevant feedback ▫ Exhibit confidence in your project team ▫ Show interest in each team member and their knowledge ▫ Encourage individuals to participate in making decisions that affect them ▫ Establish a climate of trust and open communication ▫ Minimize the use of statutory position powers ▫ Listen to and deal effectively with employee complaints ▫ Emphasize the need for improvements in performance.

Guidelines for Creating a Motivational Project Environment • Factors related to organizational climate/environment ▫ To create a favorable work environment  Make sure that accomplishment is adequately recognized  Provide people with flexibility and choice  Provide an appropriate mix of extrinsic rewards and intrinsic satisfaction  Design tasks and environments to be consistent with employees’ needs  Make sure that effort pays off in results  Be concerned with short-term and long-term motivation ▫ Recognize. increase and help! Page 81 .

Putting It All Together From Theory to Practice • Set goals and get everyone’s acceptance and commitment (buyin) • Follow SMART goal setting • Match people to jobs ▫ Specific. Measurable. Attainable. Rewarding/Results-orients and have a Timeline • Recognize individual differences • Link rewards to performance • Individualize rewards • Check the system for equity • Don’t ignore money Page 82 ▫ People should be capable to do the job and want to do the job ▫ Rewards and recognition should be visible and tied to specific outstanding results ▫ Employees should perceive that the rewards they get are according to the results they produce ▫ Money is a major reason people work .